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GALTONIA


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G. aristata. Perennial.


Parent of popular hybrid G.× grandifl ora. Has been largely replaced in garden culture by its many offspring, but the wild form is still much used in reveg- etation and wildfl ower mixes. Grows 2–21⁄2 ft. tall and 2 ft. across. Flower heads to 4 in. wide are yellow to red; the most common form has red rays with a jagged yellow border. G. × grandifl ora. Perennial. Hybrid between G. aristata and G. pulchella. Grows 2–4 ft. high, 11⁄2 ft. wide, with gray-green foli- age and single or double fl owers 3–4 in. across. Flower color range includes various shades of red and yellow, with orange or maroon bands. Exceptionally long bloom period for peren- nial—early summer until frost. Plants fl ower fi rst year from seed. Attracts butterfl ies. ‘Arizona Sun’, about 10 in.


high, has orange-red petals with yellow tips. ‘Goblin’ grows 1 ft. high, with large deep red fl ow- ers bordered in yellow. ‘Goblin Yellow’ is similar but has yellow blooms. ‘Mesa Yellow’ is com- pact and uniform at 11⁄2 ft. high, with solid yellow fl owers that bloom 2–3 weeks earlier than the others listed here. Also about 11⁄2 ft. high are ‘Oranges and Lemons’, with orange cen- ters and yellow-tipped orange petals; and ‘Fanfare’, with a burgundy center and trumpet- shaped orange petals tipped in yellow. In the 2-ft.-high range are ‘Dazzler’, with bright red petals tipped in yellow; ‘Frenzy’, with rich red, tubular petals tipped in yellow; ‘Mandarin’, with mahog- any centers and fl ame orange, yellow-tipped petals; and ‘Tizzy’, with trumpet-shaped petals of pinkish orange. Among 21⁄2-ft.- high varieties are ‘Amber Wheels’, with frilled, golden yellow, red-centered fl owers; deep red ‘Burgunder’; and pure orange ‘Tokajer’. G. pulchella. Annual. To 11⁄2– 2 ft. high, 1 ft. wide, with soft, hairy leaves and long, whiplike stems carrying 2-in. fl owers in shades of red, yellow, gold. Easy to grow; sow seeds in warm soil after frost danger is past (in Zones 12 and 13, sow in fall). ‘Red Plume’ and ‘Yellow Plume’ are double-fl owered, with 2-in. blossoms on uniform 12–14-in. plants. Attracts birds.


Galanthus SNOWDROP


Amaryllidaceae PERENNIALS FROM BULBS


ZZONES 1–9, 14–17, EXCEPT AS NOTED


FP FULL SUN DURING BLOOM, LIGHT SHADE AFTER


O REGULAR WATER X BULBS ARE POISONOUS IF INGESTED


marks inner petals of fl owers, which appear a little later than blooms of other snowdrops. G. nivalis. COMMON SNOW-


DROP. More delicate version of G. elwesii. Stems 4–8 in. high bear inch-long fl owers, their inner segments marked at tips with a green crescent. ‘Flore Pleno’ has double blooms.


Galium


Rubiaceae PERENNIALS


ZZONES 1–6, 15–17, EXCEPT AS NOTED


PSPARTIAL OR FULL SHADE OWREGULAR TO AMPLE WATER


rich soil with abundant moisture and can become a pest. G. verum. LADY’S BED-


STRAW. From Europe and Asia. Sprawling, weak-stemmed plant to 31⁄2 ft. high and wide. Tiny leaves; loose, open clusters of tiny yellow fl owers in summer and fall.


Galtonia


candicans SUMMER HYACINTH


Liliaceae PERENNIAL FROM BULB


ZZONES 4–24; H1; OR DIG AND STORE


FP LIGHT SHADE IN HOTTEST CLIMATES


O REGULAR WATER DURING GROWTH AND BLOOM


G


Galanthus


These natives of Europe and Asia Minor perform best in cold- winter climates. They are among the fi rst bulbs to bloom as winter ends, charming when peeking up through a blanket of snow. Nodding, bell-shaped white fl owers are borne one per stalk; inner fl ower segments are infused or marked with green, while larger outer seg- ments are pure white. Plants have two or three strap-shaped basal leaves. Closely related to and often confused with Leucojum (snowfl ake). Use under fl owering shrubs


or trees, naturalize in woodland, or grow in pots. Plant in fall, setting bulbs 3–4 in. deep and 3 in. apart in moist soil with ample humus. Prefer year-round moisture. Do not divide often; when division is necessary, do the job right after bloom. G. elwesii. GIANT SNOW-


DROP. Stems 6–9 in. high carry 11⁄2-in. fl owers; inner segments each have two green marks. Robust plant that is better adapted to mild-winter zones than G. nivalis. G. ikariae. Zones 4–9, 14–


24. Vigorous grower to 4–6 in. high. Glossy, rich green leaves are curved and slightly broader than those of other species listed here. Large green spot


Galium odoratum


These woodland and meadow natives have whorls of narrow leaves spaced along thin, usu- ally sprawling stems. Flowers are tiny, often profuse. All can become invasive. G. boreale. NORTHERN BEDSTRAW. Zones A1–A3; 1–6, 15–17. From Alaska, Canada, northern Europe, and Asia. To 21⁄2 ft. high and wide, with 2-in. leaves and clusters of tiny white summer fl owers. Nice wildfl ower for shade. G. odoratum (Asperula


odorata). SWEET WOODRUFF. Zones A2, A3; 2–6, 15–17. Native to Europe, North Africa, Siberia. Attractive low spreader that brings to mind deep, shady woods. Slender, square stems are encircled every inch or so by six to eight aromatic, emerald green leaves; when dried, they have the scent of fresh hay. Clusters of tiny white fragrant fl owers appear just above foli- age in late spring and summer. Use as a groundcover or path- way edging. Spreads rapidly in


Galtonia candicans


Native to South Africa. In late summer—when little else is blooming—stout 2–4-ft.-tall stems are topped with loose clusters of 1–11⁄2-in.-long, sweet-scented white fl owers. Blooms are drooping funnels up to 11⁄2 in. long, with three outer segments often tipped in green. Bold, strap-shaped leaves can reach 3 ft. long.


CARE


Plant in fall where winter lows won’t fall below 10°F (–12°C), in spring in colder regions; set bulbs 6 in. deep and 1 ft. apart, in organically enriched soil. Flo- ral display is best if clump is not disturbed from one year to the next. Where winter lows reach 10°F (–12°C), mulch planting after foliage dies down. In colder regions, dig annually and store as for gladiolus. Con- trol slugs and snails.


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