Overall, these frameworks reveal a nested structure of goals (Figure 20.1). Some focus on social objectives, related to lives and livelihoods or human well-being (SDGs 1, 3, 4, 5, 10); others address sustainable consumption and production from a resource use or security perspective (SDGs 2, 6, 7) or more broadly, such as in the context of industry or cities (SDGs 8, 9, 11, 12); and some goals address global public goods from an environmental perspective or the natural resource base (SDGs 13, 14, 15). Finally, these goals are supported by a goal on governance (SDG 16) and one addressing means of implementation (SDG 17).
The way of structuring links to the central theme of GEO-6, with Healthy People at the top (being part of human well-being) and Healthy Planet at the bottom (natural resource base). The groups of SDGs are bidirectionally connected in the sense that a healthy planet is the foundation for the economy, human development and, ultimately, human well-being, including healthy people. Unsustainable resource use, waste and pollution can impact adversely on both the natural resource base and on human well-being. A key role is thus played by the goals in the middle, addressing sustainable production and consumption and the equitable distribution of goods and services.
Grouping of Sustainable Development Goals Figure 20.1: A framework for the classification and grouping of the SDGs
Source: PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (2017). 20 474 Outlooks and Pathways to a Healthy Planet with Healthy People