Land-use change, which may impact both aquatic and terrestrial environments, can result in:
v exposure to pollutants, exotic pathogens and emerging infectious diseases harmful to humans, livestock and wildlife (WHO and SCBD 2015, pp. 1-19);
v increased human conflict (Ghazi, Muniruzzaman and Singh 2016, p. ii);
v loss of habitat for wild species and the ecosystem services they provide, such as pollinators and predators of agricultural pests (Potts et al. 2016; Woodcock et al. 2016); and
v loss of human access to nature (see Chapter 8), with disproportionate impacts on vulnerable and indigenous communities (Haines-Young and Potschin 2010).
Figure 6.5: Map of the global human footprint for 2009 (combined pressures of infrastructure, land cover and human access into natural areas, using a 0-50 on a cool to hot colour scales) (a), and absolute change in average human footprint from 1993 to 2009 at the ecoregion scale (b)