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use solid fuel for cooking and 16,500 deaths annually have been attributed to exposure to indoor air pollutants (Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves 2012a).


Kenya’s development, marketing and distribution of clean cookstoves is the most advanced in the sub-Saharan African region, having emerged in the 1980s led by development of the Kenyan Ceramic Jiko (United States Agency for International Development and Winrock International 2011). Yet by 2007, the penetration rate in the Kenyan market for cookstoves was approximately 36 per cent, and adoption in rural areas was quite low. Since then the Alliance has made notable inroads in the Kenyan cookstoves market through its partnership with the Clean Cookstoves Association of Kenya (CCAK) to encourage government officials to adopt market incentives—for example, abolishing or minimizing taxes and tariffs that impede the growth of the clean cooking sector. A notable accomplishment was the reduction in the import duty on efficient cookstoves from 25 per cent to 10 per cent by the Kenyan Government in 2016. The Alliance has also provided grants to boost brand-


building and marketing efforts and has supported two women- owned businesses through its Women’s Empowerment Fund.


Carbon financing for clean cookstoves has not only been beneficial to Kenyans but has also enabled international companies to achieve their emissions reduction goals through carbon trading, which allows for carbon credits to be used to comply with emissions reduction obligations under cap-and-trade schemes or for voluntary reduction schemes (Lambe et al. 2015).


An evaluation of six types of biomass stove highlighted the need to address key factors that contribute to reducing emissions— namely: the cookstove design and performance; other potential sources of emissions; the availability and cost of cookstoves; ventilation; and the strategies to ensure the adoption and use of clean cookstoves (Pilishvili et al. 2016). The results of the evaluation showed that the biomass stoves did reduce emissions compared with the three-stone traditional stove baseline. However, the reduction in emissions did not reach thresholds where public health benefits could be maximized.


Table 12.4: Summary of assessment criteria: Improved cookstoves in Kenya Criterion Success or failure Description


Independence of evaluation


Key actors Baseline Timeframe


Approximately 37 per cent (3.5 million) households use improved biomass cookstoves (ICSs), while over 50 per cent (approximately 5 million) households still use traditional biomass cookstoves. Between 240,000 and 300,000 ICSs are sold to new customers annually. The Kenyan Government aims to achieve 50 per cent of abatement potential (i.e. approx. 2.6 MtCO2 Green Climate Fund, a UNFCCC funding mechanism.


e) by 2030.


Over 80 per cent of the market share for biomass ICSs is dominated by artisanal fabricated stoves.


The project started in 2010, and by April 2016 the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves project had sold approximately 251,000 cookstoves across Kenya.


GHG emissions mitigation objective of 30 per cent by 2030 in relation to the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario of 143 MtCO2


considered to have an abatement potential in 2030 of 5.6 Mt CO2


e. Of this, ICS interventions are e.


Constraining factors Underdeveloped ICS supply chain; communities that collect wood for free; costs and risks associated with investment to cover remote rural areas; weak consumer awareness; regulatory constraints (i.e. import duties, taxes and poorly targeted subsidies); limited product testing capacity to enforce standards; and insufficient investment into product improvement.


Enabling factors Cost-effectiveness Equity 12 Co-benefits


Transboundary effects


Possible improvements


Kenya removed the 16 per cent value added tax (VAT) on LPG, reduced the import duty on efficient cookstoves from 25 per cent to 10 per cent, and placed a zero- rating VAT on improved cookstoves, raw materials and their accessories.


Design of cookstoves does not offer the full benefit of fuel savings and reduced emissions and high quality cookstoves are not easily distinguished from their competitors.


Households in the poorest quintile, women in younger age groups and people living in remote areas are less likely to adopt and install improved cookstoves.


Livelihood improvements, social impacts (including gender), reductions in co- pollutants (ozone damage to crops), among others.


Lessons learned can be applied to other sub-Saharan African countries.


Customer segmentation studies are needed to understand customer needs and tailor financial products for purchasers. Existing non-cookstove distribution and wholesale networks need to be used to improve consumer access and affordability.


(Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves 2013; Kenya, Ministry of Energy and Petroleum 2015)


Silk et al. 2012; Kapfudzaruwa, Fay and Hart 2017


Reference


Kenya, Ministry of Energy and Petroleum and Sustainable Energy for All 2016; Kenya, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 2017


Green Climate Fund 2018 Natural Capital Partners 2018


Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves2014: Green Climate Fund 2018


Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves 2012b; Green Climate Fund 2018


Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves 2016


310 Policies, Goals, Objectives and Environmental Governance: An assessment of their effectiveness


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