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Figure 7.5: Figure 7.6:


Figure 7.7:


Land and Soil Figure 8.1: Figure 8.2:


Figure 8.3. Figure 8.4.


Figure 8.5: Figure 8.6: Figure 8.7:


Biomagnification and bioaccumulation of methylmercury in the food chain. ...............................185


Global map of potential marine plastic input to the oceans based on human activities and watershed characteristics. .....................................................................................186 Plastic litter in the open ocean. .......................................................................188


Different perspectives on the globalization of lands in 2007 (Exckert IV projection). .........................206


Relative roles played by agricultural commodities versus manufactures and services in globalizing lands (Eckert IV projections). ...............................................................207 Estimated net impact of climate trends for 1980-2008 on crop yields by country. ...........................208


Changes of global forests (a) and cropland (b) 1992-2015 based on European Space Agency land cover data time series. ....................................................................................209 Areas designated for extractive activities in the Andean region (South America). ...........................210 Global area allocation for food production. .............................................................210 Agricultural area 2000-2014. .........................................................................211


Figure 8.8: Food supply in the world (kcal/capita per day). .........................................................211 Figure 8.9: Soybean production in South America, 2000-2014. .....................................................211 Figure 8.10: Production of oil palm fruit in South-East Asia. .........................................................211 Figure 8.11: Numbers of herbivores and poultry. ...................................................................212 Figure 8.12: Numbers of pigs, 2000-2014. ........................................................................212 Figure 8.13: Permanent meadows and pastures (1,000 ha). .........................................................212 Figure 8.14: Forest land in the world, 2000-2015. ..................................................................212 Figure 8.15: Forest area annual net change, (1990-2000, 2000-2010, 2010-2015). .....................................213 Figure 8.16: Natural forest area by region, 1990-2015. ..............................................................214 Figure 8.17: Coastal erosion rates at selected sites in the Artic. ......................................................216 Figure 8.18: Estimated coastal erosion threat in the Artic. ...........................................................217 Figure 8.19: Potential impacts of climate change on food security. ...................................................218 Figure 8.20: Make-up of total food waste in developed and developing countries. ......................................219 Figure 8.21: Share of global production volumes traded internationally in 2014. .......................................219 Figure 8.22: Developing countries: net cereals trade (million tons). ...................................................219 Figure 8.23: Global forest ownership, 2002-2013 (%). ...............................................................221 Figure 8.24: Global maps of land deals, number of land deals per country (top), land deal area per country (bottom). ......222 Figure 8.25: Benefits of tenure-secure lands outweigh the costs in three Latin American countries. ......................223 Figure 8.26: Distribution of agricultural land holdings: females. ......................................................225 Figure 8.27: Fertilizer and maize prices, 2000-2010. ................................................................226 Figure 8.28: Where should subsidies fit? ..........................................................................226 Figure 8.29: The provision of ecosystem services from natural capital: linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being. ..................................................................................227


Freshwater Figure 9.1:


Figure 9.2: Figure 9.3: Figure 9.4: Figure 9.5:


Global hydrological fluxes and storages (expressed in 1,000 km3 per year), illustrating natural and


anthropogenic cycles. ...............................................................................238 Shrinkage of Lake Chad. .............................................................................239 United States water withdrawals from all sources (1950-2010). ..........................................241 Global hydrogeological map illustrating various aquifers and groundwater resources. .......................241 Global trends in increasing groundwater use. ..........................................................242


Figure 9.6: Examples of surface streams affected by acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD) and/or tailings discharges: (left) Urban stream severely affect by AMD in western Witwatersrand Basin, Johannesburg, South Africa; (right) Tailings sediment from Samarco Dam. ..............................................243 Rivers originating in the Hindu-Kush Himalayas are among the most meltwater-dependent systems .........243 Retreat of Quelccaya ice cap in Peru between 1988 (left) and 2010 (right). .................................244 Global physical and economic water scarcity. ..........................................................245


Figure 9.7: Figure 9.8: Figure 9.9:


Figure 9.10: Model estimates of trends in faecal coliform bacteria levels in rivers during 1990-1992 and 2008-2010. .......246 Figure 9.11: Sources of anthropogenic total phosphorus loadings to lakes (five largest lakes by surface area in each of the five UN Environment regions), showing average percentage contributions in 2008-2010 annual loads. ..247


Figure 9.12: Model estimates of trends in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations in rivers between 1990-1992 and 2008-2010. ..................................................................248


Figure 9.13: Source and pathways of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) entering surface and groundwater, highlighting need for improved detection of commonly found PPCPs and their transformative products. ............................................................................249


Figure 9.14: Status and trends of the world’s wetlands disaggregated by region. .......................................250 Figure 9.15: Taxonomic differences in threat frequency for 449 declining freshwater populations in Living Planet Index (LPI) database. .........................................................................251


Figure 9.16: Migratory fish from the Living Planet Index (LPI) exhibiting a decline of 41 per cent between 1970 and 2012, with a recent upturn, and freshwater LPI for 881 monitored freshwater species exhibiting an 81 per cent decline. ..............................................................................252 Figure 9.17: Variations in trends in drinking water supply coverage across regions. ....................................252


xvi


The Sixth Global Environment Outlook


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