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of three honing stages. Two honing experimental studies (varying the finish and plateau honing stages) demonstrate the ability of some 3D surface character- ization techniques to make a link between process and surface behavior. ICMP paper #5005 from Japanese authors de-


scribes improving the energy conversion efficiency of the internal combustion engine through heat-resistant thermal spray coating of pistons. Tree thermal bar- rier sprayed coatings were tested for thermal fatigue and adhesion. Te emerging development of batteries in the auto-


motive and electronics industries has gained attention for prognostics and battery health monitoring, mostly for lithium-ion batteries. NAMRC paper #4501 ad- dresses these issues for nickel-hydrogen batteries, pre- senting data-driven models, such as autoregressive- moving-average, artificial neural network and hybrid models, to provide both degradation analysis and performance prediction for NiH2 battery cells using voltage and pressure measurements. Optimal parameters for pulsed laser ablation of


lithium-ion battery electrodes are investigated in MSEC paper #3967. Due to the sensitive nature of the operat- ing environment of battery electrodes, further research is planned into other effects that may lead to impediment or malfunctioning in the operation of the battery. Event-based cost modeling of a battery manufacturing


system is presented in MSEC paper #3917. Te method uses online information such as machine random failure and buf- fer levels and adopts a unified system performance index to quantify the systematic impact of disruption events, stations and supporting activities.


Perfecting Design and Quality Several papers deal with operational, design and quality


improvements. NAMRC paper #4477 describes a simulation tool to compare individual vs. joint implementations of JIT, TQM, TPM and SCM within a single framework. Various operating scenarios were simulated in batch production of an automotive component manufacturing plant. It was observed that some individual implementations were helpful but not as effective as joint implementation of all methods. Government and university researchers in NAMRC paper


#4428 advocate for design for assembly (DFA) knowledge in early design. Te goal is for an early, graph-based design environment to provide manufacturing best practices and the quantification of design decisions so that designers can bal- ance manufacturing implications with design intent, prior to investing time in CAD-based detailed design. NAMRC paper #4416 from Norway discusses the interaction of lean, green and global supply chain strategies and advocates for more


research on the subcomponents of the supply chain (i.e., pur- chasing, logistics, measures and metrics) to understand how to obtain synergies from the drivers, overcome the barriers and make trade-offs where necessary. One of the most important ergonomic factors that car


manufacturers consider is the ease of entering a vehicle. In MSEC paper #4039, a team of academic and automotive re- searchers proposes a modeling framework to use the motions of 20 limb and torso body landmarks to predict subjectively reported discomfort during ingress. Te results were signifi- cantly more accurate than a model using subject and design variables as inputs. Te framework also enables the use of a small number of joint trajectories to predict discomfort with- out loss of prediction accuracy.


Research Flashback Te 2014 NAMRI/SME S.M. Wu Research Implementation


Award (www.sme.org/wu-award) recognized S. Jack Hu of the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) for his fundamental contributions to assembly modeling and the successful imple- mentation of these technologies in industry. Hu developed an innovative method for systematically identifying sources of variation in assembly systems that has been implemented at Chrysler and General Motors, resulting in significant quality improvements and economic benefits. Te 1992 NAMRC pa- per cited with the award, “Identifying Sources of Variation in Automobile Assembly Using Principal Component Analysis,” Transactions of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 20, was written by Hu and his doctoral advisor, S.M. Wu.


Motorized Vehicle Manufacturing 23


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