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Overview


includes the cylinders, and the main bearing caps. Te lower part is a ladder frame design of die-cast aluminum that bolts onto the iron upper block. While diesel engines commonly use


CGI blocks, this is the first time the material has been used for the block of a gasoline engine. CGI provides the strength of normal cast iron, but with reduced weight. “Previous engine block design


choices were high strength or com- pact or lightweight,” said Ed Waszc- zenko, engine systems supervisor. “We wanted to go further with the 2.7-l EcoBoost and design an engine with compact structure and high strength and light weight.” Te weight part of the equation is


Toyota will begin marketing its fuel cell vehicle in Japan and the US in 2015.


investment to reconfigure parts stamping equipment and add new processes such as extrusion lines. Tere is not enough aluminum sheet production or capacity in the world to fully supply the entire automotive industry if steel were to sud- denly disappear.” Te upshot is that going forward the world of motorized


vehicles will be even more of a multimaterial world than it is now and that the majority of those materials by weight will be metals. A large reason for the reliance on metal is, as mentioned, an infrastructure already exists and well-known construction techniques abound in the auto industry even though there may be some hurdles to clear in the joining of dissimilar metals (more information may be found at http:// tinyurl.com/MEjoining).


Dissimilar Materials Tere is one surprising instance in which dissimilar mate-


rials are being joined, and that is in the new 2.7-l V6 that will be available in the aluminum-bodied 2015 Ford F-150. Using a structure similar to one that was common more


than a decade ago, the turbocharged engine uses an engine block containing iron. (Te majority of modern engines use aluminum for both block and head.) Where the twin-turbo 2.7-l differs from its predecessors is that the upper section of its block is made of compacted graphite iron (CGI) and the lower section is made of aluminum. Te upper section is composed of an iron casting, which


14 Motorized Vehicle Manufacturing


obvious. Te strength part is due to the fact that Ford will use high levels of “boost” or pressure produced by the engine’s two turbochargers to deliver the torque levels that pickup drivers expect. Te 2015 small-displacement


V6 is rated at 375 lb-ſt, virtually the same output generated by the nearly twice as large 2014 5.0-l V8 (380 lb-ſt).


Tooling up for Turbos Te use of turbochargers is another accelerating trend in


motorized vehicle manufacturing. Te forced induction they provide allows small displacement engines to be used in ap- plications once reserved for larger displacement engines with more cylinders. In theory the turbocharger acts as an off/on switch. A four-cylinder engine thus can deliver small-engine fuel economy when the turbo is “off” and deliver big-engine power (but greater fuel consumption) when the turbo is engaged. An added advantage is that big-engine power is available at small-engine weight, another fuel efficiency con- sideration. An example of this swap of a little engine for a big one oc-


curred when the 2011 Hyundai Sonata midsize sedan debuted with a 2.0-l turbocharged four-cylinder in place of the 3.3-l normally aspirated V6 that had been offered previously. Ford followed a similar path with its Fusion midsize sedan for the 2013 model year when it substituted a turbo four for a V6. Another sign of the small-engine surge are turbocharged


three-cylinder engines being offered by General Motors (only in Europe for now), BMW’s Mini brand and Ford. Toyota also has announced that it will soon offer a turbo three-cylinder engine. Displacement of these engines is in the 1.0–1.5-l range. An increase in the use of turbocharging will quite naturally


Photo courtesy Toyota Motor Corp.


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