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Not everyone will be a top athlete like Mo


Farah, but all clients can get fitter and stronger


group fitness development manager for Everyone Active in the UK. “This means that group exercise instructors need to be communicating and interacting with members in the same way as PTs and gym instructors – they need to be able to suggest changes and progressions to their customers. I often see members doing two or three classes in a row. The instructor needs to challenge the member to work harder in the first class and push them outside of their comfort zone.” And trying a different approach has been shown to work. Sisson and colleagues (2009) reported that, when the amount of exercise increased, the percentage of VO2


max non-responders


went from 43 to 15 per cent. Knowing when, and how, to take a different tack can be the most challenging thing for staff.


CLIENT MONITORING AND FEEDBACK In determining whether a particular approach is having the desired effect, regular assessments are needed. “We repeat our test measures every two to three weeks,” says Tom Whitehead, PR manager at UP Fitness. “One of the tools we use is Biosignature Modulation to assess hormonal balance within the body. This allows us to create a bespoke nutritional, supplement and exercise plan and make any changes every few weeks.” “If you’re not assessing, you’re guessing,” adds Collins. “I use a functional movement screen, as this often highlights poor movement patterns that can hinder


February 2013 © Cybertrek 2013


progress. Getting the fundamentals in place is necessary with some clients before they can make any progress.” A PT will be able to closely monitor a


client’s progress, but will regular gym- goers receive the same level of attention? “There’s no reason why not,” says Bletso. “It’s a case of raising the bar of expectations for all staff. We’ve developed our own tool to measure staff interactions with clients, because we know those following a programme are much more likely to reach their goals. We can track the length and quality of each interaction, and its impact on a client’s goals.”


WORK WITH WHAT YOU’VE GOT Finding the right programme can be challenging for some, but that doesn’t


REFERENCES


l Booth, F.W. and Laye, M.J. (2010). The future: genes, physical activity and health. Acta Physiol. 199:549-556 l Bouchard C, Tremblay A. (1990). Genetic effects in human energy expenditure components. Int. J. Obes. 14(1):49–55. Discussion:55–8 l Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Despres JP, Nadeau A, Lupien PJ, Theriault G, Dussault J, Moorjani S, Pinault S, Fournier G. (1990). The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. N Engl J Med. 322(21):1477–1482 l Chapman, R.F., Stray-Gunderson, J., Levine, B.J. (1998). Individual variation in response to altitude training. J Apply Physiol. 85:1448-1456 l Dennis RA, Zhu H, Kortebein PM, Bush HM, Harvey JF, Sullivan DH, Peterson CA. (2009). Muscle


expression of genes associated with inflammation, growth, and remodeling is strongly correlated in older adults with resistance training outcomes. Physiol Genomics. 38(2):169-75 l Faith MS, Rha SS, Neale MC, Allison DB. (1999). Evidence for genetic influences on human energy intake: results from a twin study using measured observations. Behav Genet. 29:145–54 l Hubal, M.J., Gordish-Dressman, H., Thompson, P.D., Price, T.B., Hoffman, E.P., Angelopoulos, T.J., Gordon, P.M., Moyna, N.M., Pescatello, L.S., Visich, P.S., Zoeller, R.F., Seip, R.L., Clarkson, P.M. Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37: 964–972 l Scoggin, C.H., Doekel, R.D.,


Kruger, M.H., Zwillich, C.W., Weil, J.V. (1978). Familial aspects of decreased hypoxic drive in endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol. 44:464-464 l Sisson, S.B., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Earnest, C.P., Bouchard, C., Blair, S.N., Church, T.S. (2009). Volume of exercise and fitness nonresponse in sedentary, postmenopausal women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 41(3):539-45 l Timmons JA. (2011). Variability in training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation. J Appl Physiol. 110(3):846-53 l Tercjak M, Luczynski W, Wawrusiewicz-Kurylonek N, Bossowski A. (2010). The role of FTO gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of obesity. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 16(2) 109-13


mean exercise is a lost cause. “Nutrition, digestion, quality and quantity of sleep, and stress levels all influence how someone responds to training,” says Whitehead. “We can influence these – and when we do, people start seeing results.” “Everyone can improve and respond.


They may not be Mo Farah or Jess Ennis, but everyone can get fitter and stronger,” concludes Collins. Nevertheless, in his 2011 paper Timmons says that, although the chances of being a non-responder for numerous traits is very low, it isn’t zero. When scaled to the human population as a whole, we can’t rule out the existence of tens of thousands of global non-responders. Identifying these individuals and helping them reach their goals is a wholly different challenge. l


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