This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
EXERCISE SCIENCE


Factors such as sleep, nutrition and stress levels can all affect exercise response WHAT WORKS FOR ONE PERSON MORE THAN LIKELY


WON’T WORK FOR ANOTHER. TRAINERS SHOULD HAVE ACCESS TO A RANGE OF ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES


percentage of the population are more prone to weight gain and fi nd it more diffi cult to lose weight. Previous research had already identifi ed genetic infl uences. Early research by Bouchard (1990) involved overfeeding pairs of twins, resulting in a weight gain that varied wildly from 9.48lbs to 29.32lbs. Bouchard and Tremblay (1990) estimate that 40 per cent of the variability in metabolic rate and energy expenditure is genetically related. Various authors have since shown the contribution numerous genes make to predisposition for weight gain. In fact, Tercjak (2010) suggests that over 100 genes infl uence obesity, while Faith (1999) found evidence that genes play a role in calorie intake.


WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR EXERCISERS? At face value, the term ‘non-responder’ may be taken to mean that any positive adaptations to exercise are unachievable, and that exercise undertaken to improve health is a waste of time. Indeed, as previously mentioned, a superfi cial review of research offers an alarming fi gure of up to 30 per cent of members potentially classed as non- or low responders. Thankfully this is far from the full


picture: while it’s true that a large percentage of the population may be classed as a non-responder in one outcome measure, they are perfectly capable of making gains in others. This was the subject of a 2010 presentation published in the journal


Acta Physiologica. The authors argued that, while an individual may not see much improvement in their VO2


max,


there are hundreds of other potential adaptations that occur. They cite research published in 2009 by Vollaard and colleagues which showed that, although some subjects did not increase their VO2


max in response to aerobic


exercise, they still showed positive adaptations at a muscular level. “VO2


max is only one measure of


fi tness,” says Steve Collins, fi tness manager at Freedom Leisure in the UK. “Besides, it’s been shown that VO2


max


scores don’t determine who’s going to win a race – there are plenty of other factors that can infl uence performance.” Therefore, a client with an interest in running, but with low VO2


max


max,” adds Collins. What the research really highlights is the need for a bespoke approach to training. “What works for one individual more than likely won’t work for another,” says Daniel Sheppard from training provider Sideways8. “The genetic infl uence only serves to strengthen this point. Trainers and operators should be able to measure progress and have access to a range of alternative approaches to help a client reach their goals.”


responsiveness, shouldn’t be discouraged from taking up the sport. “By improving their running technique, economy of movement or lactate threshold, it’s still possible to improve their running performance without a change in their VO2


60 Read Health Club Management online at healthclubmanagement.co.uk/digital


EFFECTIVE PROGRAMMING With this in mind, if one approach isn’t working, it’s time to try something new in order to see results. “One person might respond to following the standard food pyramid to lose weight, but another may not. At this point it’s time to change your approach – as a trainer, you need to be fl exible,” says Collins. “Maybe they will respond better to a low carbohydrate, moderate protein, high fat diet, or maybe they need less protein and more fat or intermittent fasting. “This applies to training too: some people need less cardio, more weights. Everyone is human, but there are going to be some genetic variations. Don’t assume that what has worked for you will work for your clients as well.” The ability to suggest a range of alternatives may, however, extend beyond the knowledge of the ‘average’ PT or instructor. “A good PT will have a thorough understanding of the wide range of different methods of training they can use. They will also understand the need for regular evaluation of how their client’s body is responding to the exercise and nutrition programme and adapt accordingly to reach their goals,” explains Dan Reilly, lead tutor at The Training Room personal trainer academy. This need for a sound knowledge base extends beyond those working on the gym fl oor. “We recommend studio classes to a lot of our members because of the social element and the group support they offer,” explains Michelle Bletso,


February 2013 © Cybertrek 2013


© WAVEBREAKMEDIA/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM


© YURI ARCURS/SHUTTERSTOCK.COM


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92