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ARCHITECTURE


Paris. Jabobo Tenon spoke in his Mémoirs sur les hôpitaux de Paris, about the theory which included in the well known Rapport Tenon, where the sustainable bases of the new model originated in 17th Century are featured, and which will last up to the end of 19th Century. The basic aspects were: • Decentralisation and separation of wards for patients according to illnesses.


Figure 3: The British Hospital.


later to La Rioja Street, a facility which had a capacity of 200 beds. The gardens were one of most outstanding features of the Hospital, with the Coeur d’Honneur, being the centre and cornerstone of the institution. This Hospital was known for its neuro-psychiatric, surgical, cardiovascular and dialysis treatments, and in 1922 it introduced, for the first time, painless childbirth.


The German hospital The Deutscher Krankrenvereins – DKV – (German Society of Relief to sick people) worked on the organisation of the entity named Verein Hospital or the Association of the German Hospital. Two further pavilions were later added as wooden barracks. Later Architect Ferdinand Moog created two further wings with 128 beds. The central heating system, water supply, steam generation and sterilisation were located in the basement area. On the ground floor, baths with hydrotherapy apparatus, laboratory and dwelling rooms for employees were located. On the first floor were the septic, medical examination and X-ray rooms. The second floor housed the aseptic operating theatres and two symmetric wards of two floors, for 32 patients each (Fig. 5 & 6).


The Italian hospital With the creation of the ‘Sardá’ Naval Station in 1836, the Kingdom of Sardinia, Italy, started trading between Europe and the River Plate which led to many Italians living outside their country of origin and this encouraged the creation of the Societá Nazionale Unione e Benevolenza in 1858. It is the oldest mutual society of the country which, in 1861, resulted in the creation of the Italian Hospital (Fig. 7). Although the original project of the first Italian Hospital was attributed to Engineer and Architect, Pietro Fossati, the facilites underwent various enlargements and modifications during construction. Nicolas and Jose Canale were in charge of the continuation, enlargement and termination of the building between 1862 and 1872, and Architect Juan Antonio Buschiazzo took over the works, opening the facilities in 1901 with a capacity of 445 beds. This is, undoubtedly, the most outstanding


example of the paradigmatic model recommended by the Science Academy of


82 IFHE DIGEST 2015


• Maximum lighting and ventilation. • External consulting rooms in the front of the building.


• Interaction of common services


with different areas of healthcare provision.


• In the final section of the scheme, a room for corpses near the chapel.


• Three built levels – the ground level for convalescents, the middle floor for interaction and the top level for general services.


• Adequate orientation. • Operating theatre as an amphitheatre, exclusive area designed for surgery teaching.


The Spanish hospital In 1852, the Spanish Commercial Guard and Retirement House was created as the first Spanish institution of the River Plate. The project was led by Architects Juan Moliné and Julián Jaime García Núñez. The Spanish Hospital was set on a seven-hectare plot on Belgrano Street, with four pavilions to house 300 patients and wards for 36 people, assisted by the Sisters of St Francis. (Fig. 8 & 9). The building had several clear purposes –


‘There certain significant features that relate to all of these community hospitals.’


sanitary, religious and financial services. The architectural work is a clear and genuine example of Art Nouveau called ‘Catalan Modernism’, which chronologically originated in the end of 19th and beginning of 20th centuries. The chapel of the Spanish Hospital (1897) was conceived by Architect Alejandro Christophersen.


The Galician Centre The Galician Centre started out in a rented building on Estados Unidos Street to impart teaching to members. It published a monthly magazine called Galician Region. After several moves, the centre finally settled down on Belgrano Avenue. In 1939, after the Spanish Civil War new land was acquired on Moreno Street (Fig. 10 & 11) intended to house a medical clinic, urinary tract, dermatology, gynecology, surgery, otolaryngology, orthopaedics and traumatology, respiratory tract, pediatrics, circulatory system, obstetrics, clinical analysis, nutrition, nervous and digestive prophylaxis, X-ray, emergency, pharmacy and physicians for home visits. In 1950, it became the first mutual entity in America with 85,000 members – to assist both immigrants and Argentine individuals without distinction.


Figure 4: The French Hospital.


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