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BUILDING DESIGN


Building work in progress at the Kallvu Llanka hospital. The architecture of the hospital was also


inspired by ethnic symbols of the Mapuches. Its design represents silver jewellery worn by Mapuche women. Called a ‘Trapelacucha’, it symbolises the senses or the various paths of life. This ancient jewellery is reflected in the imprint of the hospital complex. The east-west placement of the main


building on site responded to the Mapuche cosmovision. The location of the other blocks (A and B, D, to G) was fan-shaped around the main building C. Architects from Hildebrandt + Asociados


(H+A) were put in charge of the architectural office. The assignment was based on the draft design of the hospital complex given by the Arauco Health Service. The first challenge was to address the draft


architecture, giving consideration to the site characteristics. The hospital has a curved shape according to a natural slope and morphology of the site. Besides being a difficult topography, bad quality soil (type 3), mostly clay silt, and unsuitable for founding and located in a complex seismic zone. Cañete is an area of high seismic activity, which adds to the structural requirements of the building design. The engineering solution was to make a massive soil improvement, particularly below the main building, generating improved soil for foundations.


Building Information Modelling (BIM) The challenges of the site triggered the incorporation of new technologies. Cañete is the first project that Hildebrandt + Asociados has developed by BIM modelling, both in terms of architecture and structure. The design has evolved over time from paper to CAD and from CAD to BIM. The idea is that, based on a parametric virtual model, all the information required to generate a project can be obtained with great precision and speed. Available


information covers areas such as the evaluation of energy efficiency solutions, structural modelling, coordination of specialties, quantity surveying and images. The project includes seven buildings, six


blocks of two floors and one main building of four floors plus underground floors. The outpatients waiting areas consist of six structured domes of glued laminated timber (glulam). It is customary for the Mapuche people to


meet in a circle within their communities. When they meet, they do so around a fire, looking each other the face. Following this pattern, the waiting rooms were designed like domes with a circular base, similar to the Mapuche huts, called ‘rucas’. The six blocks each have a circular waiting room at the entrance. From south to north there is an emergency unit, X-ray unit and kinesiology unit. Operation rooms, delivery rooms (for Mapuche vertical birth) and the hospitalisation area, which coincides with the main building. Northbound is also a laboratory, sterilisation unit and the family health center. Medical boxes for Mapuche medicine have also been incorporated. Among the circular waiting rooms and the


blocks there are two fluxes of horizontal circulation. An internal circulation of staff and supplies, and a parallel one, that is external, for patients and visitors


‘The new Cañete Hospital is one of the first hospitals with intercultural relevance in Chile, meeting the needs of both western and ancestral medicine.’


communicating waiting rooms to the buildings. The application of glulam in the circular


waiting rooms is one of the highlights of the project. All public areas of the hospital incorporate glulam because it is a natural product and also has thermal features. The draft design did not specify the materials to be used, so H+A looked for a material that was technologically modern yet non-invasive to the landscape, and came to the glulam which it considered a noble yet industrial material. The Mapuche domes are structured with


16 prefabricated glulam curved pillars, 12 m high, which start from a polygonal socket of reinforced concrete, which is 0.5 m high to an upper central metal ring where a skylight is supported. These curved trusses consult an intermediate structure, or nerve, also of glulam, connected together by another metal ring of lower height to provide triangulation to the system and thereby reach a better seismic resistance. Inside, the domes are covered in mañío


wood which is horizontally installed. Inside they have glass wool of 100 mm thickness and the outside plate is 20 mm plywood, waterproofed and coated with metal tiles. In summary, the Cañete hospital is one of


the first hospitals of intercultural relevance in the country. The initiative involves healing through traditional medicine and the contribution of the Mapuche health experience. It is a design inspired by the people and the land of ‘the people of the earth’. As a sign of gratitude, the local people decided to name the hospital, Hospital ‘Kallvu Llanka’, which in Mapudungun means ‘Jewel of the Universe’.


Easter Island project Another project undertaken by H+A aimed to maintain the traditions of Rapa Nui, while incorporating various energy saving solutions. The project was undertaken in the most


The hospitalisation building at Hanga Roa hospital. 64


isolated place in the world – in the middle of the Pacific Ocean on Easter Island. The new hospital building for the town of Hanga Roa was designed to replace the island’s existing health infrastructure which dated from 1976. The old hospital building was donated to the island by the US Government at the end of the Vietnam conflict. The new hospital project responded to a


IFHE DIGEST 2015


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