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gineering and Cardiology (Sendai, Japan) and Toki Corp. (Tokyo) comes development of an artifi cial myocardial assist device using shape memory alloy fi bers (most commonly Ni-Ti alloy). Rather than being an artifi cial heart pump with associated problems of thrombosis from direct contact between blood and artifi cial materials, the assist device reproduces native heart muscle fi ber orientations with contractile function and attaches to the myocardium (middle muscle layer of the heart wall) (ICMP 2014-#4999).


Additive Advantages A University of Michigan engineering and orthotics/ prosthetics team explored additive manufacturing by fused deposition modeling as an affordable, functionally successful design and fabrication method for personalized


Needle is ground fl at


Needle fi xture device for precision blunting of needles.


ankle-foot orthoses (braces). Finite element analysis results show that the FDM orthoses have suffi cient strength and stiffness to match a patient’s needs. Durability testing is under further research, and manufacturing time can be signifi cantly reduced by incorporating optimal topology geometry and sparse structure (NAMRC 2014-#4484). The authors describe their work also in an SME Tech Paper (http://tinyurl.com/tp14pub72) presented at RAPID 2014 (http://rapid3devent.com). Several other SME Tech Papers from RAPID 2014 highlight the impact of rapid/additive techniques in medical manufactur- ing. Authors from Singapore and Australia describe 3D printing of bio-inert dense zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) for hip replacements (http://tinyurl.com/tp14pub76). Zirconia ceram- ics also are processed with bottom-up digital light projection stereolithography for patient-specifi c dental devices (http:// tinyurl.com/tp14pub78) and analyzed under chewing forces in dental implant abutments (http://tinyurl.com/tp10pub113). Bone substitute materials made by 3D printing (fused deposi- tion modeling) are tested in a special fi xture to apply loads experienced in human bodies (http://tinyurl.com/tp14pub82).


Research Flashback For more than half of the 25 years of SME’s RAPID Conference & Exposition, medical applications have been


regular topics. Covered has been everything from calcium phosphate implants (http://tinyurl. com/tp00pub70) to biomodeling of congenital cardiovascular malformations (http://tinyurl. com/tp04pub191) and porous titanium implants for craniofacial applications (http://tinyurl. com/tp08pub116)—in papers by researchers and specialists around the world for the benefi t of children, soldiers (http://tinyurl. com/tp06pub106) and pets (http:// tinyurl.com/tp12pub59; http:// tinyurl.com/tp09pub10). SME conferences and clinics in the 1980s and ’90s, with papers from companies such as Loctite (Rocky Hill, CT; www.henkelna. com), Medtronic (Minneapolis; www.medtronic.com) and Dymax


(Torrington, CT; www.dymax.com), focused on medical adhesives (http://tinyurl.com/tp84pub157; http://tinyurl. com/tp90pub20), medical plastics, medical device assembly (http://tinyurl.com/tp91pub13; http://tinyurl.com/tp92pub25) and medical implant manufacturing. Coincidentally, one pa- per reviewing orthopedic prostheses (http://tinyurl.com/tp- 87pub42) cites a study on hip replacement longevity written by the late Robert Stauffer a few years before he became an SME editor.


Early uses of composites in orthopedics are described in two 1986 Composites in Manufacturing (http://www.aerode- fevent.com/) conference papers by Zimmer Inc. (Warsaw, IN; www.zimmer.com) authors (http://tinyurl.com/tp86pub100; http://tinyurl.com/tp86pub113). Finally, from the way-back machine is a 1965 paper (http:// tinyurl.com/tp65pub111) from Queen’s University of Belfast (Northern Ireland) on new techniques in forming of stainless steel upper dentures. “It must be admitted that explosive forming cannot be practised by the individual dentist,” but the technique did prove clinically satisfactory and became com- mercially available. From explosive forming to artifi cial heart muscle, the pace of innovation in medical manufacturing goes to show that it never hurts to try out an idea. If only those K-wires didn’t hurt so much when the orthodontist twists them.


21 — Medical Manufacturing 2015


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