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overview


tion or physical verifi cation of operative effects, smart shape memory gel (SMG) models were developed by researchers from Yamagata University (Yonezawa, Japan) and Nidek Co. Ltd. (Famagori, Japan). One model is the eye lens—capable of folding and unfolding as in cataract surgery, and a second model—of the eye itself—allows insertion of the SMG lens and assists in development of surgery techniques and de- vices (ICMP 2014-#5035).


Surface Effects


Experiments applying high-energy pulse laser peening (HEPLP) to imprint a pattern on the sur- face of pure titanium biomedical (dental) implants showed how this technique can contribute to good cell density, location and attachment, all of which are crucial to the success of a dental implant and the patient’s long-term comfort. Future work by University of Iowa bio/engineering and dentistry departments will focus on fi ne-tuning the imprinted channel design and matching channel width to oral tissue cell size (less than 10 µm) (MSEC 2014- #4181).


An environmentally benign process for surface


fi nishing of medical device and implant alloys developed by Faraday Technology Inc. (Clayton, OH), called pulse/pulse reverse electropolish- ing, eliminates the need for low conductivity/high viscosity electrolytes and does not require the ad- dition of aggressive chemicals such as hydrofl uoric acid to remove passive fi lm. Several case studies describe ongoing work on electropolishing of al- loys such as Nitinol, other titanium alloys, stainless steels and alloys containing molybdenum and niobium (MSEC 2014-#4035).


Device Developments Kirschner wire (K-wire) has been around for more than


a century, introduced in 1909 by German surgeon Martin Kirschner. The wire attached to orthodontic bands to pull crooked teeth into alignment? That adolescent’s pain in the jaw is K-wire. Wire drilled into bone—temporarily or perma- nently—to stabilize bone structures or hold fractures? That’s K-wire (or pins), too.


Although good for twisting us into shape, Kirschner wire


is energy intensive because it has no active cutting edge and no effective bone-debris evacuation system, characteristics that cause excessive heat generation and tool wear. Heat generation, often visible from the bone area being drilled (lit-


erally, smoke at the operating table), can cause thermal injury to the patient and blood loss to the bone being repaired. University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) and Nagoya University (Nagoya, Japan) research collaborators devised a modifi ed K-wire tip with three slots to enhance cutting and chip (bone debris) evacuation. Experimental data show an average of 30-40% reduction in maximum thrust force and torque, with further research focusing on refi nements of the three-slot (tro- car) design to optimize debris evacuation and reducing costly


Diagram of end-cut needle biopsy, where tissue is cut and removed using the sharp edge of the needle tip. Cutting effi ciency is improved with different needle tip geometries.


additional machining at the tip (MSEC 2014-#4090). At-home kidney dialysis can improve a patient’s quality of life, but size and cost are limiting factors in hemodialysers for home use. Microchannel hemodialysers are promising devices, but challenges include reliable hermeticity (air/leak tightness) in the compression sealing of the elastoviscoplas- tic membrane with the polycarbonate laminae containing the sealing boss. Developing a framework for predicting the her- meticity are Oregon State University (Corvallis) investigators in the School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering (MSEC 2014-#3941). A related paper, “Self-reg- istration methods for increasing membrane utilization within compression-sealed microchannel hemodialysers,” was published in the Journal of Manufacturing Processes (http:// tinyurl.com/JMP-hemo). From Tohoku University’s Department of Medical En-


20 — Medical Manufacturing 2015


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