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sediment. A cheap and easy way to do this is to line a plastic funnel with a paper coffee filter and fill the bottles with it. To improve the oxygen satu- ration of the water and enhance the process, fill them about two-thirds full, put the cap on, and shake them vigorously for about 20 seconds. Then fill them the rest of the way. Once the bottles are full, cap them


Once filled, place the bottles in full sunlight for 6 hours. The sun’s UV-rays and, if possible, heat radiated from the supporting surface attack the harmful microorganisms in the water.


and find a place to put them where they will receive at least 6 hours of full sunlight. Ideally, you’ll want to lay the bottles flat so the sun can easily penetrate the full depth of the water. Laying the bottles on a dark surface that readily absorbs solar energy, like a corrugated metal roof, is even bet- ter. The corrugated surface keeps the bottles in place and the metal heats up from the energy of the sun. That heat radiates into the bottles, raising the temperature of the water and in- creasing the efficiency of the process. After 6 hours of sunlight expo-


The AquaPak from Solar Solutions is a purpose-designed water disinfection product that combines an ultra-efficient SODIS method with solar pasteurization.


Instructions for the AquaPak are printed on the product in both Eng- lish and easy-to-follow pictorial form.


sure, the SODIS process is complete and any harmful pathogens in the water should be dead. The same 6-hour guideline applies for skies up to 50-percent cloudy, though some ex- perts recommend adding an hour or two to the process just to make sure. If the skies are more than 50-percent cloudy, the bottles should be left out for two full days of exposure to the available sun. If it is so cloudy that you believe the SODIS method will not be effective, you will hopefully have the opportunity to collect rain- water from those clouds. Otherwise, you will be forced to use a different method of water disinfection.


The AquaPak Research on the SODIS method


A WAPI (water pasteurization indicator) is a reusable temper- ature-sensitive vial containing wax that melts at 149 degrees F, providing a definitive indi- cator that pasteurization tem- perature has been reached. It is built into the AquaPak’s cap.


showed that at water temperatures higher than 113 degrees F (45 degrees C), the combined effects of UV-radia- tion and temperature greatly enhance the disinfection efficiency. With this idea in mind, inventor and entrepre- neur Frank Husson decided to devel- op a purpose-designed water disinfec- tion product that not only provided more efficient SODIS process, but combined it with solar pasteurization of the water as well. The result was the Aquapak, which is produced and pro- moted by Husson’s San Diego-based company, Solar Solutions. Although the SODIS method is


very effective, Husson realized that plastic bottles have several shortcom- ings that make them less than ideal. Since they are cylindrical, they have significant depth at their diameter and offer limited surface area — both factors that limit the sun’s ability to penetrate the water. Plastic bottles


64 REALITY CHECK • 2012 SPECIAL EDITION


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