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Lube-Tech


and operation safety. In general, smaller and lighter batteries are more efficient and improve the overall performance of the vehicle.


2018-2019 EV Sales Comparison


Plug-In-Sales Year-Over-Year Figure 4: US EV sales in 2018-2019 [14]


PUBLISHED BY LUBE: THE EUROPEAN LUBRICANTS INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


No.128 page 5


OEMs to increase production and create dedicated hybrid transmission fluids. Some major areas for improvement include higher volume resistivity to act as an insulator, thermal capacity to cool windings, and material compatibility as shown in Figure 6 [3].


The performance will also need to be modified to include friction, oxidation, and wear control [3]. It is found that using higher quality and less polar stocks such as Group III, III+ and IV can advance these fluids electrical and thermal conductivity properties. These higher quality stocks are tested for transmission fluid performance, and many seek to enhance durability while ensuring hardware protection via reduced viscosity. Viscosity is lowered from the typical 5.5 centistokes fluid to 4.5 centistokes fluids at 100°C with the plausibility of even lower numbers in the future [17]. Fuel economy was demonstrated to improve dramatically from 0.6% (Fluid A) to 2.3% (Fluid C) over the Factory Fill (FF Fluid) reference for fluids shown in Figure 7 [17]. The field trials had positive results indicating a green light for fluids to continue developing. Overall, a well-balanced formula for managing each property of the fluid is critical in achieving optimal performance.


Figure 5: US Plug-in sales in last few years [14]


Also, many EVs presently use lithium ion batteries which raises the risk of fire hazards. In the next decade, OEMs are striving to resolve these issues by updating their technology for power batteries to utilise lithium air, alternative metal ion chemicals, solid state batteries, and high energy capacitors [16]. Potential goals of these technologies will be to improve the average mileage of 300-500 km and develop 240-400 KW ultra-high-speed charging to shorten charging times [16]. With the growth of e-mobility, there will be a strong push for


26 LUBE MAGAZINE NO.157 JUNE 2020


Figure 6: Performance requirements of dedicated hybrid transmission fluids [3]


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