search.noResults

search.searching

dataCollection.invalidEmail
note.createNoteMessage

search.noResults

search.searching

orderForm.title

orderForm.productCode
orderForm.description
orderForm.quantity
orderForm.itemPrice
orderForm.price
orderForm.totalPrice
orderForm.deliveryDetails.billingAddress
orderForm.deliveryDetails.deliveryAddress
orderForm.noItems
Lube-Tech Global production of DCT


Dry Clutch Wet Clutch


Estimated global DCT production 2025 Figure 2: Global production of DCT [8]


PUBLISHED BY LUBE: THE EUROPEAN LUBRICANTS INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


No.128 page 4


like conventional hybrids with both an electric motor and ICE but can be charged by plugging into an outlet and can operate on electricity and/or gasoline [13]. BEV are solely electric based and are less mature technologically compared to PHEV.


Currently, EV sales dropped significantly in the last few months which prompts concern for the future [14]. However, the long-term forecast for the market is smooth and ever-growing due to growing incentives and environmental regulations [14]. The current technical issue to address is the compatibility of the fluids due to electric motors being comprised of different materials in comparison to combustion engines. This means the electrical properties of the fluid must be modified to meet specifications. Electrical systems tend to operate above 48 V as opposed to 12 V which standard engines use [15].


Figure 3: Global production of DCT vs China [8]


Aside from hybrid cars, electric vehicles (EV) are also predicted to gain traction in the future. In 2018, over 2 million EV were sold globally with China leading at 1.2 million followed by the U.S. [12]. China also leads in recycling lithium-ion EV batteries post auto use to keep costs down. However, while the battery recycling industry has potential, there is a lack of technology currently to recycle certain materials such as cobalt and nickel. Overall, EV vehicles eliminate pollution from ICE usage but the technology is nascent and still developing. It is continuing in its ascendency in the industry due to demanding EPA regulations and is predicted to exceed 10 million EVs sales by 2025 and 50 million sold by 2040 [12]. EV is separated into two main facets: plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV). PHEV are


The fluid must be modified to reach a balanced medium between conducting and insulating electrical currents; if the conduction is too high, there is a risk of current leakage. This would be immensely dangerous for anyone who comes in contact with the charged parts [15]. If the fluid is too effective in insulating, it could potentially cause static build-up and discharge which can damage the equipment [15], essentially by operating as a capacitor. Other plausible factors to consider include oxidation, sludge build up, and viscosity [15].


Oxidation deteriorates the oil and can increase conductivity as a result. Fluids that are prone to oxidation increase the chances of sludge build up which hinders the ability of the oil to reduce heat from the motor. Viscosity also plays a formidable role in thermal conductivity because oils with constant low viscosities allow proper heat transfer without decomposition [15]. To address these problems, additives to retain low viscosities may be included in the fuel to aid thermal conductivity. Another technical problem to address is battery energy density


LUBE MAGAZINE NO.157 JUNE 2020 25


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48