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Lube-Tech


product. Some pluripotent additives, like the very frequently utilised Zink Di-Thio Phosphate (ZDDP) type, bring multiple benefits to the lubricant formulation, not least by acting as a secondary antioxidant. Many types of Sulphur-containing extreme pressure (EP) and anti-wear (AW) additives for industrial lubricants and MWFs are utilised in finished lubricants “anyway”, thus imparting much improved oxidation stability as an additional benefit, see Figure 1, AO molecules.


Figure 1. Primary antioxidants AO and ZDDP, a) BHT, b) Di(Alky-phenyl)-amine, c) ZDDP. R = alkyl chain.


Thus, the purpose of this present study is to highlight this crucial, but often (sometimes) overlooked role of base oil or additive Sulphur for superior antioxidant expression, and enhanced oxidation stability during the use phase of the finished lubricant.


The first part of Nynas’ work on the properties of NSP + PSP Blends (“Nybase”) was reported at the Esslingen Colloquium in January 2016 and was subsequently published in T + S [1].


A study specifically investigated the oxidation stability properties of naphthenic-paraffinic base oil blends was published at the Esslingen Colloquium 2018 [2]. In that study, base oil and additive Sulphur levels could be correlated to oxidation stability in different laboratory tests. A second, free-standing part was presented STLE Annual Meeting in Minneapolis in 2018 [3]. In that study, a new test matrix comprising Naphthenic, Group II, Group III and PAO base fluids were investigated with respect to different chemical and physical properties, including oxidation stability. An additional set of correlations between added primary and secondary antioxidants and overall


Figure 2. The HP-DSC test equipment. 34 LUBE MAGAZINE NO.148 DECEMBER 2018


PUBLISHED BY LUBE: THE EUROPEAN LUBRICANTS INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


No.119 page 3


base oil Sulphur could be established, which we hope might serve as useful guidelines for lubricant formulators, or anyone interested in the properties of blends.


Experiments and tests Methodology


The oxidation stability behaviour of Nynas’ Naphthenic-paraffinic blend base oil Nybase 150 was compared to that of several different Group I Solvent Neutral 150 base oils. Additional comparisons were made to NYNAS T 22 and a Group II paraffinic base oil of similar viscosity (20 cSt at 40 °C). All base oils were formulated with primary antioxidants. In some samples, additional “base oil” type Sulphur was added, molecular species that are not necessarily identified, or commonly utilised as, lubricant additives. Six different secondary antioxidants (AO) were investigated as well, since most base oil buyer or lubricant formulator readily can obtain these additives from different commercial suppliers. We also tested samples containing a combination of primary and secondary antioxidants and additional “base oil” Sulphur had been boosted.


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