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than the precision of D445. In addition, a precision statement has also been developed for D7945 at -40°C. To date, D7945 is the only viscosity test method for jet fuels with an approved precision at -40°C. Measurement of viscosity at the lower temperatures of -40°C is considered to be more representative of pumpability.


In addition to viscosity, the JFA-70Xi also calculates the temperature at which the fuel reaches 12.0 mm2


afore-measured viscosities at -20°C and -40°C. The 12 mm2


/s using ASTM D341 and the /s


metric is considered essential in the operation of the APU (auxiliary power unit) during ETOPS (Extended Twin (Engine) Operations). Furthermore, by comparing this 12 mm2


/s temperature with the


resultant freezing point also measured, i.e. whether colder or warmer, the JFA-70Xi further assess which of the two temperatures is the more critical during low temperatures flight operation.


/s temperature may or may not be meaningful depending on whether it is warmer or colder than the freezing point.


As illustrated by the two figures at the right, the calculated 12 mm2


By combining freezing point and viscosity in a single instrument at the current specified temperature of -20°C and also at the potentially more useful temperature of -40°C, and lastly the temperature at which the fuel would reach 12 mm2


/s, the


JFA-70Xi represents the state-of the-art in delivering the most comprehensive measure of the pumpability of jet fuels at cold temperatures.


Phase Technology was recently acquired by PAC. This makes PAC- Phase the number one provider of Jet Fuel analysis solutions. PAC’s portfolio includes: the world renowned JFTOT, the new OptiReader, OptiFZP and the Intelligent Heater Tubes used by labs worldwide.


References


1. Fuel Freezing Point Harmonization, Final Report, February 2008, IATA Technical Fuel Group (TFG) Task Force.


2. Ibid


3. CRC Project AV-11-09, “Develop an Aviation Fuel Cold Flowability Test to Replace Freezing Point Measurement”, G. Richard, 2010.


4. 2016 ASTM Research Report RR D02-1833, “Interlaboratory Study to establish statements for measuring the kinematic viscosity at -20o


C and -40o C, and then calculating the


temperature when the sample would reach 12 mm2 ASTM D341.”


/s using


An illustrative output of the JFA-70Xi test screen showing various results. In particular, the 12 mm2 if it is found to be warmer than the freezing point, since the fuel is free of solids when 12 mm2


/s temperature is reported /s is reached.


Author Details Gordon Chiu, Charles Clutter & Larry Spino, PAC Email: customer_service@phase-technology.com Web: www.phase-technology.com


An illustrative plot when the 12 mm2 calculated 12 mm2


rationale of D341 unsuitable. AUGUST / SEPTEMBER • WWW.PETRO-ONLINE.COM


/s temperature is calculated to be colder than the freezing point. In this instance, the /s temperature will not be reported as the fuel will be in a two-phase regime, rendering the calculation


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