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www.chemicalsknowledgehub.com Specifications Application


Colour Type


Purity (% DS-HPLC) Water content


pH (40% in water) POLYSORB PA All White


Pellets > 99.5


6.5-8.5 POLYSORB LP Polyester


Colorless Liquid > 99.5


20.0% max 6.5-8.5


Polymer Additives POLYSORB PSA


Polycarbonate, Polyurethane


White


Pellets > 99.5 -


8.0-9.0 Table 1. Isosorbide is industrially manufactured from renewable plant feedstocks in a series of different grades.


However, certain trends prevail across the industry, such as the move away from petroleum-derived ingredients and the increasing use of water-based formulation to reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, particularly for coatings. Isosorbide is a relatively new ingredient for CASE formulation that combines sustainability with technical performance, with specific advantages depending on the application of interest.


Polyurethane (PU) coatings


PUs are made by reacting alcohols with two or more reactive hydroxyl groups per molecule, ie diols, triols or polyols. 1, 4 butanediol (BDO) is one such alcohol, routinely used as a chain extender to increase the


1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -3.5 -4.0 -4.5


molecular weight of the PU. Substituting BDO with isosorbide creates coatings with higher heat resistance, better adhesion and improved impact and abrasion resistance.


Switching from BDO to isosorbide increases the Tg of PUs made by reaction with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), thereby improving heat resistance. Impact resistance is also significantly improved (Figure 3), the absence of any red coloration showing that the isosorbide coating effectively prevents copper oxidation as a result of coating failure.


Epoxy resins 29ºC 3ºC 48ºC 14ºC


0% IPDI* - POLYSORB® 0% IPDI* - BDO**


80% IPDI* - POLYSORB® 80% IPDI* - BDO**


The most common commercial epoxy resins are made by reacting epichlorohydrin and bisphenol A to form diglycidyl ether (BADGE - bisphenol A digylcidyl ether), which is then reacted with an amine to form the resin. Isosorbide can be directly substituted for bisphenol A to make isosorbide-based digylcidyl ether to reduce toxicity and improve the quality of the finished product.


-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Temperature (Cº)


*IPDI (Isophorone Diisocyanate) **BDO (1,4-butanediol) BDO-based POLYSORB® based


Isosorbide-based epoxies deliver an improved aspect, with a shiny gloss and better UV resistance than aromatic-based BADGE analogues. Appearance is further enhanced by the absence of the white haze that can appear with BADGE/amine systems in the presence of water; isosorbide-based epoxies are less sensitive to the classical amine carbonation phenomena that produce this effect. Isosorbide epoxy derivatives can, in fact, be miscible and soluble with water, a unique and valuable feature. Just as with PUs, impact resistance is also improved and, in addition, isosorbide-based epoxy exhibits superior adhesion and deformation properties. Displacing bisphenol A with isosorbide results in an epoxy resin with improved deformation properties as evidenced by a conical mandrel bending test using an epoxy coating applied to a normalized Q panel (Figure 4). The isosorbide-based coating shows superior resistance to deformation and better adherence to the panel. The superior adhesive properties of the isosorbide-based epoxy are also demonstrated by comparative cross cutter testing.


Isosorbide in plastics packaging


Red coloration, indicating copper oxidation = coating failure


No breakage


Figure 3. Isosorbide-based PUs exhibit superior heat and impact resistance to BDO-based alternatives.


Issue 2 • March/April 2021


Although often labelled as ‘the problem’, plastic packaging has the potential to become ‘the solution’ with estimates suggesting that switching plastic out for alternatives, such as aluminium and glass, could result in a 2.7 fold increase in greenhouse gas emissions.1 Establishing a circular economy, in which plastics are efficiently recycled and reused, is essential, but so too is the development of


37


Heat Flow (arbitrary units)


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