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transport demands. “There is little understanding of how planned infrastructure will influence future land use and the shape of the city. And such an approach may or may not lead to maximization of so- cial welfare or offer maximum economic value for money.” He suggested involving industry in the early stages for options on technology, project structure, development and construc- tion. A unified and empowered regulatory framework/institu- tion and embedding sustain- able operating efficiencies through technology are also crucial.

Dr. Sudhir Krishna, Secretary, Ministry of Urban Develop- ment, stated that the current phase of urbanization was very relevant to the economic growth ambitions of the coun- try. And finding solutions to transport problems, including

putting in place mass transpo- ration system, was in the core agenda of the government.

He defended urbanization as necessary for brining in a bal- anced human development. Confining the rural poor to the depleting and nonviable size of village land would be coun- ter productive and undesir- able. He highlighted the need for transport-oriented urban development as people should be able to commute 50-60 km for income earnings. The Urban Development Secretary favoured all viable towns of two million plus population go- ing in for metro rail sytem. “We should facilitate longer travel (in shorter time) for economic activity”, he added.

Dr Krishna said his ministry was advising States Govern- ments to use metro develop- ment “not just to remove urban

congestion but to drive eco- nomic activity”. Taking metros to the hinterland would not only reduce congestion but lead to dispersal of industries and ensuring better environ- mental quality, he added.

In the Business Session on ‘Role of PPPs in Meeting Funding and Service Deliv- ery Challenges’, the speak- ers favoured trying innovative approaches. “We do not have to be a slave of the past”, but should look up to revenue earnings form unconventional sources like building office complexes and complete settlement colonies above the metro station/depot or on the surplus project land. The Bangalore Metro’s revenue collection and repayment arrangement is much better because the state government agreed to levy a project ben- efit fee from the real estates

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