This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
able high read rates for embedding RFID chips for traceability, and use less energy and/or dry ice required to keep contents cool due to improved insulation. New service carts also offer an appealing alternative to the


bulky, heavy, and less aesthetically appealing carts that popu- late the airplanes flying today. New lightweight composite carts offer an attractive alternative. Based on the number of airplanes due to be delivered over the next decade and a four-year refurbishment rate, there is


material developed for low-rate manufacture is essential to get the material into the interior components. Seat manufacturers for the current designs are primarily


metal and fabric fabricators with limited or no experience in the manufacture and process controls for high-strength car- bon fiber composites. Terefore there is opportunity for new manufacturers to enter the market, or combine with existing seat manufacturers to integrate and optimize the manufacture of interior airplane components.


Aircraft interiors represent a larger market (by volume) than airframe structures for high-performance composites.


a market potential for about 2,952,000 galley carts to supply new aircraſt over the next decade. Aircraſt already in service would add to the requirement.


Challenges While the market potential is large, the challenges that pro-


hibit the use of high-strength carbon fiber for interior airplane components must be addressed. Material cost, manufacturability, and flammability are the


major inhibitors to the rapid proliferation of high-strength carbon fiber composite material to the interior of commercial aircraſt. In addition to composite material costs, recyclability of manufactured components has become a major worldwide concern for environmental compliance. Research efforts have demonstrated typically the same fiber stiffness as virgin mate- rial. Electrical properties are unchanged but there is some deg- radation in strength. Fibers have the potential to replace virgin fibers in structural applications such as interior components where the strength properties are not as rigid as the exterior or structural components of the airframe. Tere is potential for recycling material back into the aircraſt as interior com- ponents align with the projected retirement of carbon-fiber composite materials from existing fleets of airplanes. Tere are strong economic drivers for carbon-fiber recov-


ery and reuse on cabin articles. Several recovery methods have been developed. To date, MIT-RCF has reclaimed 1.5 million lb (680.4 t) of carbon-fiber scrap from landfills. A test barrel for Boeing’s 787 program was chopped up and recycled, and bicycle manufacturer Trek (Waterloo, WI) has implemented a recycling program for its carbon bike frames that has, thus far, amassed 140,000 lb (63.5 t) of scrap. Manufacturability is another factor that needs to be


addressed. Aircraſt manufacturers are low-rate producers of carbon-fiber parts. Te process for manufacture of high- strength carbon fiber parts has been a barrier for use of the material in the high-production-rate automobile industry except on premium automobiles such as the Lamborghini. Te need for transfer of high-rate manufacture technologies to a


One possible solution is chopped fiber, liquid resin infusion


using precise fiber charges in seat or cart compression molds. Since unlike virgin material, recycled material emerges from the process in random discontinuous bundled fiber. Te process for straightening/aligning the fiber to match virgin material has not been discovered and is estimated to be expensive if it can be accomplished. Te fibers do not need to be straightened/aligned if used as a charge in a compression mold. Material flammability is another issue that must be solved.


New flammability test methods for composites aimed at flame propagation has driven research to evaluate the use of new test methods, processes, criteria and standards such as the Méker burner. Te Méker burner test is similar to a Bunson burner only the flame burns hotter and wider. It has the potential to provide a more stringent test method and could provide a simpler test for aircraſt certification. Te Flammability Standardization Task Group, a subgroup


of the FAA’s International Aircraſt Fire Test Working Group, was formed to collaborate and propose industry-wide stan- dards methods of compliance. Tis is due to FAA flammability requirements being interpreted differently by regional FAA organizations, other regulatory agencies and industry suppli- ers and manufacturers. Before the widespread replacement of existing interior components can be accomplished, the incon- sistencies need to be addressed and corrected.


Summation Tere is an opportunity to manufacture a wide variety of in-


terior components on airplanes using high-strength carbon fiber composites material. Te opportunity is incentivized by lighter weight, increased strength and greater passenger comfort. Te limitations can be mitigated by high-rate production


tooling and processes and recycling if the new stringent flame retardation standards can be met. Te use of coatings and additives shows promise. If these issues can be addressed and mitigated, the horizon for consumption of composite materi- als for manufacture of airplane interior components could dwarf its use on the airframe. ✈


Aerospace & Defense Manufacturing 2013 145


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156  |  Page 157  |  Page 158  |  Page 159  |  Page 160  |  Page 161  |  Page 162  |  Page 163  |  Page 164  |  Page 165  |  Page 166  |  Page 167  |  Page 168  |  Page 169  |  Page 170  |  Page 171  |  Page 172  |  Page 173  |  Page 174  |  Page 175  |  Page 176  |  Page 177  |  Page 178  |  Page 179  |  Page 180  |  Page 181  |  Page 182  |  Page 183  |  Page 184  |  Page 185  |  Page 186  |  Page 187  |  Page 188  |  Page 189  |  Page 190  |  Page 191  |  Page 192  |  Page 193  |  Page 194  |  Page 195  |  Page 196  |  Page 197  |  Page 198  |  Page 199  |  Page 200  |  Page 201  |  Page 202  |  Page 203  |  Page 204  |  Page 205  |  Page 206  |  Page 207  |  Page 208  |  Page 209  |  Page 210  |  Page 211  |  Page 212  |  Page 213  |  Page 214  |  Page 215  |  Page 216  |  Page 217  |  Page 218  |  Page 219  |  Page 220  |  Page 221  |  Page 222  |  Page 223  |  Page 224  |  Page 225  |  Page 226  |  Page 227  |  Page 228  |  Page 229  |  Page 230  |  Page 231  |  Page 232  |  Page 233  |  Page 234  |  Page 235  |  Page 236  |  Page 237  |  Page 238  |  Page 239  |  Page 240  |  Page 241  |  Page 242  |  Page 243  |  Page 244  |  Page 245  |  Page 246  |  Page 247  |  Page 248  |  Page 249  |  Page 250  |  Page 251  |  Page 252  |  Page 253  |  Page 254  |  Page 255  |  Page 256  |  Page 257  |  Page 258  |  Page 259  |  Page 260  |  Page 261  |  Page 262  |  Page 263  |  Page 264  |  Page 265  |  Page 266  |  Page 267  |  Page 268  |  Page 269  |  Page 270  |  Page 271  |  Page 272  |  Page 273  |  Page 274  |  Page 275  |  Page 276  |  Page 277  |  Page 278  |  Page 279  |  Page 280  |  Page 281  |  Page 282  |  Page 283  |  Page 284  |  Page 285  |  Page 286  |  Page 287  |  Page 288  |  Page 289  |  Page 290  |  Page 291  |  Page 292  |  Page 293  |  Page 294  |  Page 295  |  Page 296  |  Page 297  |  Page 298  |  Page 299  |  Page 300  |  Page 301  |  Page 302  |  Page 303  |  Page 304  |  Page 305  |  Page 306  |  Page 307  |  Page 308  |  Page 309  |  Page 310  |  Page 311  |  Page 312  |  Page 313  |  Page 314  |  Page 315  |  Page 316  |  Page 317  |  Page 318  |  Page 319  |  Page 320  |  Page 321  |  Page 322  |  Page 323  |  Page 324  |  Page 325  |  Page 326  |  Page 327  |  Page 328