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Process Improvement


serves to produce better manufacturing outcomes, it also saves MBI users a great deal of time and money.


Origins of MBD MBD has developed from the globalization of aircraſt


manufacturing and the extended product lifecycle of aircraſt. In the past, aircraſt companies were vertically integrated and manufactured most of their own aircraſt components. Most had large machining centers and stretch-forming plants; some even had their own foundries.


Boeing has been in the forefront of the MBD movement.


Boeing D6-51991 MBD calls for a dataset containing the exact solid, its associated 3D geometry and 3D annotation of the product’s dimensions and tolerances to specify a complete product definition. Tis dataset does not contain a conventional 2D drawing. MBD provides a single-source of definition, and it reduces conflict between CAD and paper drawings.


MBD Makes MBI Real MBI is a very simple concept. It ensures that all of the in-


formation required to complete a manufacturing task, in this case inspection, resides in one master source, the model, that can be readily accessed and understood by any person or tool that requires it. CAD-based inspection soſtware has long been the most


widely accepted tool for programming CMMs. Te best of these programs provide an intuitive 3D environment that makes programs more efficient to write and inspection results easier to interpret. Even so, much of the information required to write a good CMM program, particularly GD&T, resided in sources that had to be accessed independently. While some CMM soſtware makes it possible to annotate


models with GD&T data, it involves still another disconnected stand-alone process. Beyond that the programmer must gather GD&T from annotated drawings. When the information is miss- ing, undecipherable or incomplete, the programmer must make an educated guess based on his or her experience programming similar parts or contact the design engineer for clarification. Within organizations that have committed to MBD, that


3D MBI data captured from an F-18 structural com- ponent at the US Navy’s NAVAIR Advanced Mea- surement Systems and Reverse Engineering Lab.


Today, major OEMs are reshaping their business models to


be that of airframe assemblers and they are outsourcing part and subassembly manufacture across a global supply chain. OEMs realized years ago they needed a process that would reduce time-to-market and improve product quality while efficiently communicating all the required design intent in- formation needed by everyone in the manufacturing process, no matter where they were located. Model Based Definition is being implemented to facilitate these goals. MBD, also known as digital product definition (DPD),


is the practice of using 3D digital data (such as solid models and associated metadata) within 3D CAD soſtware to provide specifications for individual components and product assem- blies. Te types of information included are geometric dimen- sioning and tolerancing (GD&T), component level materials, assembly level bills of materials, engineering configurations, design intent, etc. By contrast, other methodologies have historically required accompanying use of annotated 2D draw- ings to provide such details.


104 Aerospace & Defense Manufacturing 2013


information will be embedded in the model so that the design intent is absolutely clear. Furthermore, these organizations have made appropriate investments in people (training), processes (standardization) and technology (soſtware, equip- ment and infrastructure) so that MBD can be used across the boundaries that used to separate departments and serve as a Rosetta Stone that allows everyone to communicate effectively about their specialized and common objectives. Once complete adherence to MBD has been established,


everything else falls into place. Tere are very few capital expen- ditures required. Aſter concentrating for a while on people and processes, companies that employ MBI will soon begin deriving exceptional advantages, not the least of which is reducing the tremendous costs associated with 2D paper drawings.


Eliminating Conventional Inspection Inefficiency Going green is a wonderful thing, but reducing paper costs


is far from the most compelling reason to purge 2D drawings from nearly every phase of manufacturing. Annotated paper drawings are sometimes hard to decipher, easy to damage or lose, increase the likelihood of manual data entry errors, and may not be the most current version. Tey also introduce a tremendous amount of cost.


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