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Heavy Duty Engine Development Trends for Improving Fuel Economy


Focus on the Engine Lubrication System


Background Concerns on climate change and energy cost have driven the transportation industry towards achieving better fuel economy. An overview of past, current, and future developments, aimed at improving fuel economy in engine lubrication system technologies at Volvo will be discussed and described in this article.


Where are we heading?


This is the question in focus during this article and the highlight will be on aspects such as oil viscosity, how low can and do we want to go in moving towards ultra thin film lubrication taking in to account factors such as the cost trade-off between friction, wear and engine on-costs? In terms of the oil temperature, is it possible to increase this further or is it a better option to reduce this? For oil pressure, how low can we go taking in to account the balance towards on-costs for developing engine hardware? The same factors are important when considering oil pressure.


Engine Lubrication System and Fuel Consumption Looking at the way technology has evolved in the Volvo D13 Engine over the years, we need to consider some important questions. Where are we coming from, where are we now, what is the current status, and finally where are we heading?


Engine Lubrication System – definition!


But first a definition of the system. The most important functions of engine lubrication are to lubricate the moving parts, supply oil pressure to other engine systems, cool the hot parts of the engine, clean the engine systems by carrying particles/dirt to the oil filters, limit mechanical energy consumption and finally to control heat rejection to the coolant system.


Engine Lubrication System – components! The major components of a typical engine oil system are; engine oil, oil pan or sump, strainer, an oil pump, valves, oil cooler, oil filter, and sensors. Architecture of galleries and channels are also needed to feed the oil to various consumers.


Engine Lubrication System – components! The major components of a typical engine oil system are; engine oil, oil pan or sump, strainer, an oil pump, valves, oil cooler, oil filter, and sensors. Architecture of galleries and channels are also needed to feed the oil to various consumers.


But first, which are the major influencing factors on fuel consumption?


The oil viscosity impacts upon the amount of pumping power needed in reducing friction between moving parts of an engine. Lower oil viscosity affects the oil temperature, less pumping power impacts upon the oil pressure needed and finally oil pressure loss which also can affect the pumping power if there are internal leaks occurring.


Where are we coming from?


The first step was that the following updates to the engine platform were carried out. A waxed oil thermostat, a new Fixed


Figure 3. First Step Engine Oil System diagram


Where are we? The current situation in 2017 is that the engine utilises a 10W-30 engine oil with HTHS Viscosity of 3.5 mPas, a new electrical oil thermostat is in use with a Fixed Oil Pump (FOP) containing a relief valve, and an electrical piston cooling valve.


The addition of new technology including EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) operated by a valve, CCV (Crank Case Ventilation) by way of an oil separator have all added to the engine’s oil consumption.


Continued on page 8 Figure 1. Base Line Engine Oil System diagram


These changes resulted in lower fuel consumption; see fig 6, with thermostat and relief valve and higher oil pressure margin with the Piston cooling valve since more oil is directed to the main gallery.


Figure 2. Relief Valve Magnus Horn M.Sc Nav.Arch.


Oil Pump with a relief valve (rFOP) see figure 2., and a new Piston Cooling Jet (PCJ) utilising a mechanical valve were all fitted to the platform.


6


LUBE MAGAZINE NO.141 OCTOBER 2017


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