search.noResults

search.searching

note.createNoteMessage

search.noResults

search.searching

orderForm.title

orderForm.productCode
orderForm.description
orderForm.quantity
orderForm.itemPrice
orderForm.price
orderForm.totalPrice
orderForm.deliveryDetails.billingAddress
orderForm.deliveryDetails.deliveryAddress
orderForm.noItems
DUE DILIGENCE


TECHNICAL DUE DILIGENCE


Regardless of whether a windfarm is financed on or off balance sheet, it is prudent to systematically identify and mitigate all technical risks when evaluating project viability and profitability


For investors, an offshore windfarm is its own security and Technical Due Diligence (TDD) is conducted. Without project finance, an owner might commission a ‘3rd Party Review’.


EARLY DAYS


Although most floating wind technologies currently under development are based on familiar oil & gas substructure types, they are still in the ‘proof of concept’ stage with no clear design candidate(s) for market dominance [1]


.


The key point to note is that TDD of a demonstrator project is not fully representative of its future utility scale expansion. Platform size, installation procedures, floating transformer stations, advanced controllers, and improved mooring & anchoring systems are considered the most critical technical barriers to commercialisation [2]


.


MARKET TOLERANCE Further, the maturing wind power market has little tolerance for over-predicted pre-construction yield estimates, which for demonstrator projects may be based on statistically unreliable (small/bias)


data sets and exaggerated availability assumptions.


Consenting challenges, electrical / grid connection constraints, legal and socio-environmental risks add another dimension to utility scale TDD.


This means that TDD for a demonstrator project should be a precursor for TDD of its utility scale expansion(s). The subtle difference lies in the feasibility objectives at each scale: At the demonstrator stage, the practical potential is to prove the realisability of a technical design within budget and time constraints. For utility scales, the practical potential is to maximise technical efficiency in order to maximise profit.


ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATION For example, windfarm architecture must be considered to optimise the field layouts of six degree-of-freedom floating turbines under pitching wake-effects [3] [4]


Another would be to apply economies- of-scale O&M strategies using real-time site-specific data analytics to deploy drones that inspect and repair major turbine components across the whole windfarm.


Addressing common challenges Finally, it would be beneficial for the floating industry to undertake cross- project industry-wide TDD initiatives to address common challenges and critical bottleneck issues across the supply chain [2]


. This will help standardise


engineering and streamline floating technologies towards commercialisation.


Offshore Wind Consultants Limited


Bibliography


1. G. Rajgor, “Spotlight on Due Diligence for Wind Power,” 2011


2. Carbon Trust, “Floating Offshore Wind: Market and Technology Review,” June 2015


.


3. P. Dvorak, “Factoring in six degrees of freedom for floating offshore wind turbines,” Lloyd’s Register, February 2015


4. D. M. e. al, “Assessment of Wake Effects on Floating Wind Turbines,” International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, June - July 2016


www.windenergynetwork.co.uk 59


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95
Produced with Yudu - www.yudu.com