Key relationships in quantitative data: (as mentioned above) are typically defined by: 1. the average of the data (giving a sense of where the data tends to cluster);

is&#38;required.&#38; Key%rela,onships%in%quan,ta,ve%data:&#38;&#38;(as&#38;men,oned&#38;above)&#38;are&#38;typically&#38;defined&#38;by&#38;–&#38; 1. the&#38;average&#38;of&#38;the&#38;data&#38;(giving&#38;a&#38;sense&#38;of&#38;where&#38;the&#38;data&#38;tends&#38;to&#38;cluster);&#38; Key%rela,onships%in%quan,ta,ve%data:&#38;&#38;(as&#38;men,oned&#38;above)&#38;are&#38;typically&#38;defined&#38;by&#38;–&#38; 1.

Some,mes,&#38;coding&#38;into&#38;simple&#38;categories&#38;such&#38;as&#38;“posi,ve”,&#38;“nega,ve”&#38;or&#38;“neutral”&#38;may&#38;be&#38;all&#38;that&#38; is&#38;required.&#38;

Key%rela,onships%in%quan,ta,ve%data:&#38;&#38;(as&#38;men,oned&#38;above)&#38;are&#38;typically&#38;defined&#38;by&#38;–&#38; 1. the&#38;average&#38;of&#38;the&#38;data&#38;(giving&#38;a&#38;sense&#38;of&#38;where&#38;the&#38;data&#38;tends&#38;to&#38;cluster);&#38; 2.

2.

2. the range of the data from the smallest to the largest, recorded values (giving a sense of how polarised - or tightly clustered – the data points are around the average value.

* Measures of average are discussed more below. The&#38;chart&#38;to&#38;the&#38;right&#38;shows&#38;data&#38;that&#38;appears&#38;far&#38;

0 2 4 5 7

The chart to the right shows data that appears far more polarised or clustered around the bulk of the data between ‘3-4’ and ‘5-6’. The range of the data is compressed to varying between 1 and 8.

Ththe&#38;data&#38;is&#38;compressed&#38;to&#38;varying&#38;between&#38;1&#38;and&#38; more&#38;polarised&#38;or&#38;clustered&#38;around&#38;the&#38;bulk&#38;of&#38;

The&#38;chart&#38;to&#38;the&#38;right&#38;shows&#38;data&#38;that&#38;appears&#38;far&#38; more&#38;polarised&#38;or&#38;clustered&#38;around&#38;the&#38;bulk&#38;of&#38; the&#38;data&#38;between&#38;‘3H4’&#38;and&#38;‘5H6’.&#38;&#38;The&#38;range&#38;of&#38; the&#38;data&#38;is&#38;compressed&#38;to&#38;varying&#38;between&#38;1&#38;and&#38; 8.&#38;

the&#38;data&#38;between&#38;‘3H4’&#38;and&#38;‘5H6’.&#38;&#38;The&#38;range!&#38;of&#38; more&#38;polarised&#38;or&#38;clustered&#38;around&#38;the&#38;bulk&#38;of&#38;

Score 3H4 5H6 7H8 9H10 11H12

11 14

e&#38;chart&#38;to&#38;the&#38;right&#38; hows&#38;data&#38;that&#38;appears far&#38; Th8.is&#38;&#38;sort&#38;of&#38;analysis&#38;helps&#38;to&#38;‘dis,l’&#38;informa(on&#38;

0 4 7

out&#38;of&#38;the&#38;data.&#38;&#38;In&#38;this&#38;case,&#38;the&#38;first&#38;(green)&#38; the&#38;data&#38;between&#38;‘3H4’&#38;and&#38;‘5H6’.&#38;&#38;The&#38;range&#38;of&#38;

chart&#38;suggests&#38;that&#38;there&#38;is&#38;significant&#38;varia,on&#38;in&#38; the&#38;data&#38;is&#38;compressed&#38;to&#38;varying&#38;between&#38;1&#38;and&#38;

ouseems&#38;to&#38;idatllustrate&#38;a&#38;set&#38;of&#38;scores&#38;that&#38;are&#38;more&#38;similar&#38;with&#38;a&#38;stronger&#38;sense7H8&#38;of&#38;an&#38;average&#38;score.&#38;&#38;&#38; c!hart&#38;suggests&#38;that&#38;there&#38;is&#38;significant&#38;varia,on&#38;in&#38;

Note:&#38;charts&#38;like&#38;these&#38;can&#38;be&#38;produced&#38;rela,vely&#38;easily&#38;using&#38;Chart&#38;Wizard&#38;in&#38;Microso\&#38;Excel&#38;and&#38;then&#38;copied&#38; into&#38;a&#38;Word&#38;document.&#38;&#38;&#38;How&#38;to&#38;use&#38;Chart&#38;Wizard&#38;in&#38;Microso\&#38;Excel&#38;

This sort of analysis helps to ‘distil’ information out of the data. In this case, the first (green) chart suggests that there is significant variation in these scores and no real sense of a meaningful average score. The second (mauve) chart, however, seems to illustrate a set of scores that are more similar with a stronger sense of an average score.

these&#38;scores&#38;and&#38;no&#38;real&#38;sense&#38;of&#38;a&#38;meaningful&#38;&#38;average&#38;score.&#38;&#38;The&#38;second&#38;(mauve)&#38;chart,&#38;however,&#38; 9H10 11H12 8.&#38;seems&#38;to&#38;illustrate&#38;a&#38;set&#38;of&#38;scores&#38;that&#38;are&#38;more&#38;similar&#38;with&#38;a&#38;stronger&#38;sense&#38;of&#38;an&#38;average&#38;score.&#38;&#38;&#38;

T&#38;hithese&#38;scores&#38;and&#38;no&#38;real&#38;sense&#38;oifn&#38;fa&#38;meaningful&#38;&#38;average&#38;score.&#38;&#38;The&#38;second&#38;(mauve)&#38;chart,&#38;however,&#38; Score 3H4

s&#38;sort&#38;of&#38;analysis&#38;helps&#38;to&#38;‘dis,l’&#38; t&#38;of&#38;the&#38;

Note:&#38;charts&#38;like&#38;these&#38;can&#38;be&#38;produced&#38;rela,vely&#38;easily&#38;using&#38;Chart&#38;Wizard&#38;in&#38;Microso\&#38;Excel&#38;and&#38;then&#38;copied&#38; into&#38;a&#38;Word&#38;document.&#38;&#38;&#38;How&#38;to&#38;use&#38;Chart&#38;Wizard&#38;in&#38;Microso\&#38;Excel&#38;

&#38; ! !

Changing&#38;this&#38;informa,on&#38;into&#38;knowledge&#38;would&#38;require&#38;us&#38;to&#38;translate&#38;this&#38;‘disembodied’&#38; informa,on&#38;into&#38;the&#38;context&#38;of&#38;our&#38;research&#38;project.&#38;&#38;For&#38;example,&#38;

Genera,ng%knowledge%out%of%informa8on% Generating knowledge out of information Genera,ng%knowledge%out%of%informa8on%

Changing&#38;this&#38;informa,on&#38;into&#38;knowledge&#38;would&#38;require&#38;us&#38;to&#38;translate&#38;this&#38;‘disembodied’&#38; informa,on&#38;into&#38;the&#38;context&#38;of&#38;our&#38;research&#38;project.&#38;&#38;For&#38;example,&#38;

Changing this information into knowledge would require us to translate this ‘disembodied’ information into the context of our research project. For example:

Changing&#38;this&#38;informa,on&#38;into&#38;knowledge&#38;would&#38;require&#38;us&#38;to&#38;translate&#38;this&#38;‘disembodied’&#38; informa,on&#38;into&#38;the&#38;context&#38;of&#38;our&#38;research&#38;project.&#38;&#38;For&#38;example,&#38;

36

Thi &#38;sort&#38;of&#38;analysis&#38;helps&#38;to&#38;‘dis,l’&#38;informa(on&#38; out&#38;of&#38;the&#38;data.&#38;&#38;In&#38;this&#38;case,&#38;the&#38;first&#38;(green)&#38; chart&#38;suggests&#38;that&#38;there&#38;is&#38;significant&#38;varia,on&#38;in&#38; orma(on&#38;

11 14

0 4 7

a.&#38;&#38;In&#38;this&#38;case,&#38;the&#38;first&#38;(green) 5H6 9H10 11H12

th N&#38; ote:&#38;charts&#38;like&#38;these&#38;can&#38;be&#38;produced&#38;rela,vely&#38;easily&#38;using&#38;Chart&#38;Wizard&#38;in&#38;Microso\&#38;Excel&#38;and&#38;th n&#38;copied&#38; e iento&#38;a&#38;Word&#38;document.&#38;&#38;&#38;How&#38;to&#38;use&#38;Chart&#38;Wizard&#38;in&#38;Microso\&#38;Excel&#38;

ese&#38;scores&#38;and&#38;no&#38;real&#38;sense&#38;of&#38;a&#38;meaningful&#38;&#38;average&#38;score.&#38;&#38;The&#38;second&#38;(mauve)&#38;chart,&#38;however,&#38; sGenera,ng%knowledge%out%of%informa8on%

ms&#38;to&#38;illustrate&#38;a&#38;set&#38;of&#38;scores&#38;that&#38;are&#38;more&#38;similar&#38;with&#38;a&#38;stronger&#38;sense&#38;of&#38;an&#38;average&#38;score.&#38;&#38;&#38; Score 3H4 5H6 7H8 !

0 2 4 5 7

! !

! !

0 2 4 5 7

! !

2. the&#38;range&#38;of&#38;the&#38;data&#38;from&#38;the&#38;smallest&#38;to&#38;the&#38;largest,&#38;recorded&#38;values&#38;(giving&#38;a&#38;sense&#38;of&#38;how&#38; polarised&#38;H&#38;or&#38;,ghtly&#38;clustered&#38;–&#38;the&#38;data&#38;points&#38;are&#38;around&#38;the&#38;average&#38;value.&#38;

More%variable/less%polarised More%variable/less%polarised

More%variable/less%polarised Score 3H4

5H6 Score 3H4 7H8 5H6 9H10 11H12 7H8

This&#38;chart&#38;(le\)&#38;depicts&#38;data&#38;that&#38;is&#38;quite&#38;variable&#38; (data&#38;ranging&#38;from&#38;1&#38;to&#38;12)&#38;and&#38;without&#38;a&#38;clear&#38;sense&#38; of&#38;average*&#38;(there&#38;are&#38;more&#38;results&#38;scoring&#38;‘3H4’,&#38;but&#38; this&#38;is&#38;only&#38;one&#38;more&#38;than&#38;those&#38;scoring&#38;‘9H10’&#38;and&#38; two&#38;more&#38;than&#38;those&#38;scoring&#38;‘5H6’&#38;or&#38;’11H12’).&#38;

*&#38;Measures&#38;of&#38;average&#38;are&#38;discussed&#38;more&#38;below.&#38; 9H10 11H12 !

This chart (left) depicts data that is quite variable (data ranging from 1 to 12) and without a clear sense of average* (there are more results scoring ‘3-4’, but this is only one more than those scoring ‘9-10’ and two more than those scoring ‘5-6’ or ’11-12’).

This&#38;chart&#38;(le\)&#38;depicts&#38;data&#38;that&#38;is&#38;quite&#38;variable&#38; (data&#38;ranging&#38;from&#38;1&#38;to&#38;12)&#38;and&#38;without&#38;a&#38;clear&#38;sense&#38; of&#38;average*&#38;(there&#38;are&#38;more&#38;results&#38;scoring&#38;‘3H4’,&#38;but&#38; this&#38;is&#38;only&#38;one&#38;more&#38;than&#38;those&#38;scoring&#38;‘9H10’&#38;and&#38; two&#38;more&#38;than&#38;those&#38;scoring&#38;‘5H6’&#38;or&#38;’11H12’).&#38;

*&#38;Measures&#38;of&#38;average&#38;are&#38;discussed&#38;more&#38;below.&#38; *&#38;Measures&#38;of&#38;average&#38;are&#38;discussed&#38;more&#38;below.&#38; Less%variable/more%polarised Less%variable/more%polarised

11 14

Score 3H4

0 4 7

Less%variable/more%polarised 5H6

7H8 9H10 11H12

This&#38;chart&#38;(le\)&#38;depicts&#38;data&#38;that&#38;is&#38;quite&#38;variable&#38; (data&#38;ranging&#38;from&#38;1&#38;to&#38;12)&#38;and&#38;without&#38;a&#38;clear&#38;sense&#38; of&#38;average*&#38;(there&#38;are&#38;more&#38;results&#38;scoring&#38;‘3H4’,&#38;but&#38; this&#38;is&#38;only&#38;one&#38;more&#38;than&#38;those&#38;scoring&#38;‘9H10’&#38;and&#38; two&#38;more&#38;than&#38;those&#38;scoring&#38;‘5H6’&#38;or&#38;’11H12’).&#38;

the&#38;range&#38;of&#38;the&#38;data&#38;from&#38;the&#38;s

the&#38;range&#38;of&#38;the&#38;data&#38;from&#38;the&#38;smallest&#38;to&#38;the&#38;largest,&#38;recorded&#38;values&#38;(giving&#38;a&#38;sense&#38;of&#38;how&#38; polarised&#38;H&#38;or&#38;,ghtly&#38;clustered&#38;–&#38;the&#38;data&#38;points&#38;are&#38;around the&#38;average&#38;value.&#38;

polarised&#38;H&#38;or&#38;,ghtly&#38;clustered&#38;–&#38;the&#38;data&#38;points&#38;are&#38;around&#38;the&#38;average&#38;value.&#38; the&#38;average&#38;of&#38;the&#38;da a&#38;(giving&#38;a&#38;sense&#38;of&#38;where&#38;the&#38;data&#38;tends&#38;to&#38;cluster);&#38;

*Most&#38;qualita,ve&#38;data&#38;can&#38;be&#38;grouped&#38;around&#38;5&#38;or&#38;6&#38;categories&#38;including&#38;one&#38;for&#38;‘any&#38;others’&#38;that&#38;are&#38;less&#38;frequently&#38; occurring&#38;and&#38;more&#38;diverse.&#38;

Some,mes,&#38;coding&#38;into&#38;simple&#38;categories&#38;such&#38;as&#38;“posi,ve”,&#38;“nega,ve”&#38;or&#38;“neutral”&#38;may&#38;be&#38;all&#38;that&#38; is&#38;required.&#38;

allest&#38;to&#38;the&#38;largest, recorded&#38;valu s&#38;(giving&#38;a&#38;sense&#38;of&#38;how&#38;

Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49