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Key relationships in quantitative data: (as mentioned above) are typically defined by: 1. the average of the data (giving a sense of where the data tends to cluster);


is&required.& Key%rela,onships%in%quan,ta,ve%data:&&(as&men,oned&above)&are&typically&defined&by&–& 1. the&average&of&the&data&(giving&a&sense&of&where&the&data&tends&to&cluster);& Key%rela,onships%in%quan,ta,ve%data:&&(as&men,oned&above)&are&typically&defined&by&–& 1.


Some,mes,&coding&into&simple&categories&such&as&“posi,ve”,&“nega,ve”&or&“neutral”&may&be&all&that& is&required.&


Key%rela,onships%in%quan,ta,ve%data:&&(as&men,oned&above)&are&typically&defined&by&–& 1. the&average&of&the&data&(giving&a&sense&of&where&the&data&tends&to&cluster);& 2.


2.


2. the range of the data from the smallest to the largest, recorded values (giving a sense of how polarised - or tightly clustered – the data points are around the average value.


* Measures of average are discussed more below. The&chart&to&the&right&shows&data&that&appears&far&


0 2 4 5 7


The chart to the right shows data that appears far more polarised or clustered around the bulk of the data between ‘3-4’ and ‘5-6’. The range of the data is compressed to varying between 1 and 8.


Ththe&data&is&compressed&to&varying&between&1&and& more&polarised&or&clustered&around&the&bulk&of&


The&chart&to&the&right&shows&data&that&appears&far& more&polarised&or&clustered&around&the&bulk&of& the&data&between&‘3H4’&and&‘5H6’.&&The&range&of& the&data&is&compressed&to&varying&between&1&and& 8.&


the&data&between&‘3H4’&and&‘5H6’.&&The&range!&of& more&polarised&or&clustered&around&the&bulk&of&


Score 3H4 5H6 7H8 9H10 11H12


11 14


e&chart&to&the&right& hows&data&that&appears far& Th8.is&&sort&of&analysis&helps&to&‘dis,l’&informa(on&


0 4 7


out&of&the&data.&&In&this&case,&the&first&(green)& the&data&between&‘3H4’&and&‘5H6’.&&The&range&of&


chart&suggests&that&there&is&significant&varia,on&in& the&data&is&compressed&to&varying&between&1&and&


ouseems&to&idatllustrate&a&set&of&scores&that&are&more&similar&with&a&stronger&sense7H8&of&an&average&score.&&& c!hart&suggests&that&there&is&significant&varia,on&in&


Note:&charts&like&these&can&be&produced&rela,vely&easily&using&Chart&Wizard&in&Microso\&Excel&and&then&copied& into&a&Word&document.&&&How&to&use&Chart&Wizard&in&Microso\&Excel&


This sort of analysis helps to ‘distil’ information out of the data. In this case, the first (green) chart suggests that there is significant variation in these scores and no real sense of a meaningful average score. The second (mauve) chart, however, seems to illustrate a set of scores that are more similar with a stronger sense of an average score.


these&scores&and&no&real&sense&of&a&meaningful&&average&score.&&The&second&(mauve)&chart,&however,& 9H10 11H12 8.&seems&to&illustrate&a&set&of&scores&that&are&more&similar&with&a&stronger&sense&of&an&average&score.&&&


T&hithese&scores&and&no&real&sense&oifn&fa&meaningful&&average&score.&&The&second&(mauve)&chart,&however,& Score 3H4


s&sort&of&analysis&helps&to&‘dis,l’& t&of&the&


Note:&charts&like&these&can&be&produced&rela,vely&easily&using&Chart&Wizard&in&Microso\&Excel&and&then&copied& into&a&Word&document.&&&How&to&use&Chart&Wizard&in&Microso\&Excel&


& ! !


Changing&this&informa,on&into&knowledge&would&require&us&to&translate&this&‘disembodied’& informa,on&into&the&context&of&our&research&project.&&For&example,&


Genera,ng%knowledge%out%of%informa8on% Generating knowledge out of information Genera,ng%knowledge%out%of%informa8on%


Changing&this&informa,on&into&knowledge&would&require&us&to&translate&this&‘disembodied’& informa,on&into&the&context&of&our&research&project.&&For&example,&


Changing this information into knowledge would require us to translate this ‘disembodied’ information into the context of our research project. For example:


Changing&this&informa,on&into&knowledge&would&require&us&to&translate&this&‘disembodied’& informa,on&into&the&context&of&our&research&project.&&For&example,&


36


Thi &sort&of&analysis&helps&to&‘dis,l’&informa(on& out&of&the&data.&&In&this&case,&the&first&(green)& chart&suggests&that&there&is&significant&varia,on&in& orma(on&


11 14


0 4 7


a.&&In&this&case,&the&first&(green) 5H6 9H10 11H12


th N& ote:&charts&like&these&can&be&produced&rela,vely&easily&using&Chart&Wizard&in&Microso\&Excel&and&th n&copied& e iento&a&Word&document.&&&How&to&use&Chart&Wizard&in&Microso\&Excel&


ese&scores&and&no&real&sense&of&a&meaningful&&average&score.&&The&second&(mauve)&chart,&however,& sGenera,ng%knowledge%out%of%informa8on%


ms&to&illustrate&a&set&of&scores&that&are&more&similar&with&a&stronger&sense&of&an&average&score.&&& Score 3H4 5H6 7H8 !


0 2 4 5 7


! !


! !


0 2 4 5 7


! !


2. the&range&of&the&data&from&the&smallest&to&the&largest,&recorded&values&(giving&a&sense&of&how& polarised&H&or&,ghtly&clustered&–&the&data&points&are&around&the&average&value.&


More%variable/less%polarised More%variable/less%polarised


More%variable/less%polarised Score 3H4


5H6 Score 3H4 7H8 5H6 9H10 11H12 7H8


This&chart&(le\)&depicts&data&that&is&quite&variable& (data&ranging&from&1&to&12)&and&without&a&clear&sense& of&average*&(there&are&more&results&scoring&‘3H4’,&but& this&is&only&one&more&than&those&scoring&‘9H10’&and& two&more&than&those&scoring&‘5H6’&or&’11H12’).&


*&Measures&of&average&are&discussed&more&below.& 9H10 11H12 !


This chart (left) depicts data that is quite variable (data ranging from 1 to 12) and without a clear sense of average* (there are more results scoring ‘3-4’, but this is only one more than those scoring ‘9-10’ and two more than those scoring ‘5-6’ or ’11-12’).


This&chart&(le\)&depicts&data&that&is&quite&variable& (data&ranging&from&1&to&12)&and&without&a&clear&sense& of&average*&(there&are&more&results&scoring&‘3H4’,&but& this&is&only&one&more&than&those&scoring&‘9H10’&and& two&more&than&those&scoring&‘5H6’&or&’11H12’).&


*&Measures&of&average&are&discussed&more&below.& *&Measures&of&average&are&discussed&more&below.& Less%variable/more%polarised Less%variable/more%polarised


11 14


Score 3H4


0 4 7


Less%variable/more%polarised 5H6


7H8 9H10 11H12


This&chart&(le\)&depicts&data&that&is&quite&variable& (data&ranging&from&1&to&12)&and&without&a&clear&sense& of&average*&(there&are&more&results&scoring&‘3H4’,&but& this&is&only&one&more&than&those&scoring&‘9H10’&and& two&more&than&those&scoring&‘5H6’&or&’11H12’).&


the&range&of&the&data&from&the&s


the&range&of&the&data&from&the&smallest&to&the&largest,&recorded&values&(giving&a&sense&of&how& polarised&H&or&,ghtly&clustered&–&the&data&points&are&around the&average&value.&


polarised&H&or&,ghtly&clustered&–&the&data&points&are&around&the&average&value.& the&average&of&the&da a&(giving&a&sense&of&where&the&data&tends&to&cluster);&


*Most&qualita,ve&data&can&be&grouped&around&5&or&6&categories&including&one&for&‘any&others’&that&are&less&frequently& occurring&and&more&diverse.&


Some,mes,&coding&into&simple&categories&such&as&“posi,ve”,&“nega,ve”&or&“neutral”&may&be&all&that& is&required.&


allest&to&the&largest, recorded&valu s&(giving&a&sense&of&how&


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