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effects that may counter this. In one study, a significant reduction in inflammation was found in subjects consuming Pycnogenol.


the proposed mechanism is that Pycnogenol controls nf-Kappa B, which is a protein complex found in our cells which sends out compounds (such as cytokines) into the body that trigger inflammation (3)


.


the benefits of anti-inflammatory effects can be wide reaching, and Pycnogenol has been indicated in benefiting rheumatoid symptoms and circulatory conditions.


AStHMA, HAY fEVER AnD PYCnogEnol Many asthma sufferers fear hay fever, as the combination of the two can cause a lot of symptomatic misery. Asthma is thought to be caused by inflammation of the bronchi, causing narrowing of the breathing passages, increasing the difficulty of breathing. Hay fever can make asthma symptoms worse, as they both share similar mechanisms, including inflammation (leading to episodes of wheezy breathlessness). It's the anti-inflammatory action of Pycnogenol that may reduce the severity of asthma attacks, according to some research.


In a double blind randomized placebo trial, asthma sufferers were randomly designated Pycnogenol or a placebo for four weeks, and then crossed over to the alternate regime for the next four weeks. Pycnogenol treatment significantly reduced blood leukotriene levels (which are the main inflammatory molecules associated with asthma). those taking Pycnogenol responded favourably, and no adverse effects were reported.(4)


References 1. Sharma S, Sharma S, gulati o. Pycnogenol inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells. Phytotherapy research : PtR. 2003 Jan 31 [cited 2017 feb 8];17(1):66–9. Available from: https:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12557250.


2. Choi Y, Yan g. Pycnogenol inhibits immunoglobulin e-mediated allergic response in mast cells. Phytotherapy research : PtR. 2009 May 15 [cited 2017 feb 8];23(12):1691–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/19441014.


3. grimm t, Chovanová z, Muchová J, Sumegová K, liptáková A, Duracková z, Högger P. Inhibition of nf-kappaB activation and MMP-9 secretion by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). Journal of inflammation (london, England). 2006 Jan 31 [cited 2017 feb 8];3. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/16441890.


4. Hosseini S, Pishnamazi S, Sadrzadeh S, farid f, Watson R. Pycnogenol((R)) in the management of asthma. Journal of medicinal food. 2003 Mar 18 [cited 2017 feb 8];4(4):201–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/?term=university+of+arizona+2001+ pycnogenol.


PHARMACY In foCUS - 15


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