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Prevent Crime – Design in Your Security! from Page 16


Ground-level screening should not be


floor to ceiling, however, as that can give a criminal a way to climb to higher floors. It’s also a good idea when space permits to place short bushes close to the perimeter wall to discourage people from climbing or cutting the screen. Plantings higher than 3 feet should


not be placed within 10 to 15 feet of entrances to prevent hiding spots, and mature trees should be pruned to 8 feet. Traffic engineers will often encourage


multiple access points to increase circula- tion patterns. However, the more entrances there are, the more difficult it is to control the users and uses of the facility. The CPT- ED-recommended method is to have one means of entry and exit for all vehicles.


Pedestrian Access While parking garages are designed to move cars in an


orderly and efficient way, it is often forgotten that these cars are providing a means for people to arrive at a destination. Pedestri- an access is one of the most commonly overlooked or poorly thought-out design features of parking facilities. A primary rule is to avoid forcing pedestrians to cross the


paths of the cars whenever possible. When such encounters are unavoidable, the design should create a safe passage for persons to move along until they come to a marked crosswalk, which cau- tions drivers to take notice. Architects can design the pedestrian paths to intersect with


or pass by the parking attendant station to create the opportunity for surveillance and monitoring. Approved pedestrian entrances should be clear of obstruc-


tions and distractions to encourage use. Unapproved entrances on the ground floor should be securely locked in compliance with building, fire and life-safety codes. Full handicap accessibility is a key design consideration that


should include dedicated handicap spaces, ramps, railings, floor surfaces, pedestrian crossovers, and dedicated pedestrian paths, as well as stair design and elevator location and design. Booth attendants are thought of as guardians of the garage;


in reality, they are often targets of crime, because criminals know or believe that they hold the money. To protect them, attendant booths need to be situated in an area with a 360-degree field of view; be monitored and recorded by CCTV; and possess security glazing, duress alarms and drop safes with signage advertising that the attendant cannot retrieve money. CPTED-minded designers should exclude public rest rooms


from their designs, as they serve as a natural meeting place for victims and predators, and are difficult to secure because of pri- vacy issues. If the inclusion of public rest rooms is unavoidable, then they


should be placed so that the doors are visible from the attendant’s normal working position. Panic alarms and motion-activated lighting should also be installed.


Structural Elements If a parking facility is being newly built, then structural sup-


port elements should be round rather than rectangular. Around 18


column, for example, allows for much greater visibility around the corners than a rectangular or square column. Stairwells and elevators should be


located centrally and should be visible from the attendant’s position. However, the sides of many parking garages are enclosed to hide the perceived unsightli- ness of cars. Elevators and stairwells should


incorporate as much glass and high-visi- bility placement as structurally possible. Glass-walled elevators placed along the exterior of the building provide for good natural visibility by people on the street and within the garage.


The stairs and elevators of high-rise or subsurface parking


garages that serve offices, residences or other mixed uses should empty into a lobby and not go directly to business or residential floors. Those exiting at the lobby must then use another dedicat- ed bank of elevators or stairs that can be subject to screening, access control and surveillance by security staff, if desired.


Lighting Lighting in parking structure is addressed in detail in the


IESNAG-1-03 Guidelines for Security Lighting. They recommend lighting levels of 5- to 6 foot-candles in gathering areas such as stairs, elevators and ramps. Walkways around garages should have a 5 foot-candle range. The height of the light fixtures makes a difference in the abil-


ity of pedestrians to see past the shadows caused by the cars and other obstructions naturally occurring in parking lots. Typical


When selecting bulbs, garage owners or operators should be aware of the color rendition of the type of lighting selected.


light poles are 30 to 45 feet high and cast a wide swath of lighting, but they create deep shadows between cars. Pedestrian-level lighting in the 12- to-14-foot range casts light that will go through the glass of cars and reflect off the cars; that can dramatically reduce shadows and dark spots. The interior of parking garages should be painted in light


colors to increase reflectivity of the luminaries, which should use polycarbonate lenses for vandal- and break-resistance When selecting bulbs, garage owners or operators should be


aware of the color rendition of the type of lighting selected. The Color Rendering Index (CRI) is used as the measure for the light source to accurately reproduce the true color of an object. Low-pressure sodium vapor (LSPV) lamps typically last


about 50,000 hours and are the most energy efficient of lamps, but the CRI rating of zero makes everything yellow or brown, mak- ing them less than ideal for crime scene details. There is no one right lighting answer for all parking facili-


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