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Switches


Understanding the evolving EU Code of Conduct (CoC) Like the DOE, the EU proposes to minimise energy consumption of external power supplies, under both no-load and load conditions. Still under revision and pending formal legislative approval, the EU has defined two separate sets of provisions, known as Tier 1 and Tier 2. Tier 1 most closely resembles the DOE’s Level VI rulings, with certain important differences such as implementation of a new 10 per cent measure in addition to a four-point average efficiency in active mode. There is no distinction between direct and indirect EPSs, and high-power EPSs (Pout > 250 W) are not a subject of the regulations. Tier 2’s CoC is more ambitious and stringent, increasing performance requirements above the DOE’s Level VI standards as well as the EU’s Tier 1 for both no-load power consumption and the minimum average.


Planning for the future of EPS design A smart, proactive approach can be achieved by implementing the latest technologies and topologies with inherently higher efficiencies and low standby power features. However, addressing these new standby and efficiency requirements must not impact the quality of EPS performance. Technologies must be chosen carefully, considering all performance parameters for any specific applications. For example, switching regulators equipped with frequency-reducing features to boost


Table 2


product unsuitable for certain applications if the burst mode is within audible frequency range. Just as the DOE’s Level VI specifications became mandatory, the EU’s Tier 1 and Tier 2 proposals will certainly formalize soon. Power supply design engineers and manufacturers should be prepared for inevitable changes required to meet key performance criteria. Further, compliance with these types of standards is likely to be an evolving challenge, as environmental concerns continue to feature in legislation worldwide. Environmental responsibilities in the


design realm will only increase, providing engineers and manufacturers with a unique opportunity in a changing market. Compliant products will reduce costs and enable new applications with saved kilowatts. And reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions is a highly competitive way to differentiate products, performance and market leadership.


About the Author


Rafal Kasikowski, Design Engineer/ Power Specialist, TT Electronics Rafal is a power supply design engineer in TT Electronics’ Research & Design Centre located at Norwich Research Park. His current research interests include optimisation of magnetic devices in Switching Mode Power Supplies, thermal analysis and modelling of power converters.


light-load efficiencies may worsen output voltage – these are the kinds of


parameters that can create unexpected end-user impact, or even render the


TTelectronics.com


www.cieonline.co.uk


Components in Electronics


May 2019 45


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