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Highlights from


Biological Applications T e Application of Contrast Media for In Vivo Feature Enhancement In X-Ray Computed Tomography of Soil-Grown Plant Roots by SD Keyes, NJ Gostling, JH Cheung, T Roose, I Sinclair, and A Marchant, Microsc Microanal 23(3) (2017) 538–52


Use of iodinated contrast media is a mature and fundamental approach within modern medical imaging. By introducing radiopaque media to the human body, the oſt en-poor native contrast between diff erent tissues can be greatly enhanced. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is increas- ingly being applied to study plant root systems and their interaction with soil. T ese studies are oſt en complicated by the poor contrast observed between diff erent root and soil structures. As a result, the image analysis of XCT data in plant imaging studies is highly user-dependent and time-consuming. Here we document the use of two iodinated contrast media to perfuse living, soil-grown samples of Pisum sativum and describe the resulting contrast enhancement in XCT data. Over a range of applied concentrations, substantial contrast enhancement was observed within the root vasculature, allowing the xylem bundle and phloem poles to be distinguished. T e intricate 3D vasculature of undisturbed rhizobial root nodules was also elucidated in a number of cases. T e non-ionic iopamidol provided better contrast than Gastografi n, with fewer apparent osmotoxic eff ects.


Digital slice through a 3D XCT seminal root volume of Pisum sativum with aerial tissue perfused with iopamidol for 24 h prior to imaging. Substantial contrast is seen in xylem (xy) and phloem (ph) versus the cortical tissue (c). Soil minerals (s) and air-fi lled pores (a) are indicated. In un-perfused samples, the entire root cross section appears as (c).


Materials Applications


T e Relationship Between Atomic Structure and Strain Distribution of Misfi t Dislocation Cores at Cubic Heteroepitaxial Interfaces by C Wen, Microsc Microanl 23(3) (2017) 449–59


Atomic structure and strain distribution of misfi t dislocation (MD) cores were separately studied. T ey should be closely related because atomic reconstructions are frequently caused by the strong strain fi elds around MD cores, and the positions of the maximum lattice distortions can be given by the corresponding strain distribution map. T is paper reports the relationship between atomic structure and strain distribution of MD cores at the AlSb/ GaAs (001) cubic zincblende interface using simulated projected potential and aberration-corrected high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images in combination with the geometric phase analysis technique. T e results show that strain distributions can be used to determine the MD type (a Lomer, a 60°, or a 60° pair dislocation) and reveal the atomic structure characteristics of the MD cores, such as leſt displacements, atomic steps, and symmetrical Lomer dislocation reconstruction (see fi gure). Strain maps should be measured from optimum-defocus images or restored structure images. Image distortion caused by contrast transfer function modulation and other factors must be considered.


 yy strain distribution map of an MD core at a AlSb/ GaAs (001) interface. Bottom panel shows the [110] projected structure model.


62 doi: 10.1017/S1551929517000578 www.microscopy-today.com • 2017 July


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