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Table 1 : Key imaging and spectroscopy modes in scanning probe microscopy (SPM).


Scanning Probe Microscopy Mode


Topographic Imaging


Target Materials / Systems All materials and systems


Significance


Enabling technique of nanoscience, realized on >50,000 microscope platforms worldwide


AFM: ~>80,000 papers with > 1,000,000 citations on Web of Science (ISI)


Information Provided


Measures surface topography with ~0.1 nm vertical and ~3 nm lateral resolution (contact mode)


 Atomic and molecular level resolution possible


 Works in an ambient and controlled atmosphere, in liquids, and in vacuum


 Phase image (or dissipation) provides information on material composition


 Signal recorded on fi xed spatial grid


Magnetic Force Microscopy Magnetic materials


Mainstream tool for magnetic device characterization ~2,800 papers with ~40,000 citations on ISI


 Measures frequency shiſt and quality factor


 Semi-quantitative due to complexity of tip magnetic structure


 Sensitive to convolution with stray electrical contrast


 Visualization of static magnetic domains with 10–30 nm resolution


Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy


 Semiconductor devices  Photovoltaics  Ferroelectrics  Energy materials  Molecular systems


Piezoresponse Force / Electrochemical Strain Microscopy


 Ferroelectrics  Piezoelectrics  Biological systems  Memristors Energy storage and conversion materials


Force Spectroscopy


 Polymer systems  Biological systems  Single molecules  Colloidal solutions


Current-Voltage Mapping


 Conductors  Semiconductors  Single molecules


Mainstream technique for probing electric phenomena on nanometer and atomic level


~1,200 papers with ~18,000 citations on ISI. Developing very rapidly since the past 5 years


Enabling technique for probing polarization dynamics and ionic transport on the nanoscale


PFM: ~1,200 papers with ~19,000 citations; ESM: ~50 papers with ~650 citations on ISI


Enabling tool for single- molecule biology, chemistry, and nanomechanics


 Measures contact potential diff erence, well defi ned only for linear dielectric materials


 Not suitable in liquids or electrochemical systems


 Measurement is static ~10 ms per pixel, no information on local dynamics


 Measures electromechanical response of the surface and dissipation


 Large number of spectro- scopic modes for probing polarization switching


 Probes local mechanical properties


 Provides the structure of double layers and solvation layers in liquids


 Single molecule reactions


Mainstream technique for probing electronic transport properties of samples.


 Correlation of electronic phenomena with topographical features such as grain and phase boundaries


 Measurement of local density of states, quasi particle scattering, superconducting gaps


2017 July • www.microscopy-today.com 37


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