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ANNIVERSARY LECTURES Talks Given by Pioneering Figures in


Microscopy & Microanalysis MSA 75TH ANNIVERSARY LECTURE IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES:


Development of High-Resolution TEM for Imaging Native, Radiation- Sensitive Biomolecules


Robert M. Glaeser, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA


Following the commercial introduction of “direct detection” cameras in ~2012, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) has produced atomic-resolution structures for a large number of biological macromolecules. This new capability requires that the native, hydrated structure be maintained during imaging, of course. This is something that, at first glance, is not compatible with putting specimens into the vacuum of the electron microscope. Furthermore, ionization damage happens so easily for such specimens that high-resolution features are too noisy to be discerned in images recorded with a “safe” exposure. While practical work-arounds have partially circumvented these problems, current results still fall well short of what is physically possible. Additional technical improvements are thus very welcome and, indeed, expected. These include reliable phase plates, which have just begun to appear, and cameras whose quantum efficiency is at least 2x-improved at high resolution.


MAS 50TH ANNIVERSARY LECTURE IN THE ANALYTICAL SCIENCES:


Microanalysis: What is it, Where did it come from, and Where is it going?


Dale E. Newbury, NIST Fellow, National Institute of Standards and Technology


“Microanalysis” in the Microanalysis Society parlance refers to spatially-resolved elemental and molecular analysis performed at the micrometer to nanometer to picometer scales. Our “founding father”, Raymond Castaing, achieved the first practical elemental microanalysis at the micrometer scale in his seminal PhD thesis of 1951, wherein he not only made the first successful microprobe instrument for electron-excited x-ray spectrometry but also described the physical basis for converting the measured x-ray intensities into concentration values. Electron-excited x-ray microanalysis has been the backbone of MAS and its predecessors (EPASA, the Electron Probe Analysis Society of America and the Microbeam Analysis Society), and it has been joined by other excitation beams (ions and photons) and spectrometries (ion, electron, and photon). Although every niche in excitation-detection combinations has been explored, present excitement comes from exploiting large scale data structures collected as multi- dimensional spectrum images with the advanced software systems that can mine these vast structures for the information contained therein. The future as always is unpredictable, but improvements in spatial resolution, efficiency, and specificity are likely.


MSA 75TH


ANNIVERSARY LECTURE IN THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES:


Smarter than an iPhone: The Emergence of the Modern Microscope Ondrej L. Krivanek, Nion R&D, Dept of Physics, Arizona State University


Much like mobile phones, microscopes in general and electron microscopes in particular have made great strides in sophistication, power and user-friendliness. The underlying technology is the modern microprocessor, which has automated the mundane, and made the sophisticated readily accessible. The progress has happened on many fronts: • microscope optics, which can include several hundred independently adjustable optical elements, in order to resolve <0.5 Å and <10 meV


• autotuning algorithms, which are able to adjust tens of independent optical parameters in quasi-real-time, and make the instrument user-friendly despite all the optical elements “under the hood”


• detectors, which are getting close to the ultimate: capturing the X, Y, t (time) and E (energy) signature of every arriving electron


• analysis software, which is able to separate weak signals from noise and discern subtle data patterns in data sets amounting to many Gigabytes.


This talk will review the progress made, and provide practical examples of new capabilities.


IFES LECTURE MARKING THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE INVENTION OF THE ATOM PROBE:


The Point-Projection Microscope John A. Panitz, University of New Mexico


The Field Emission Microscope, introduced in 1937, was first Point-Projection Microscope. This talk will highlight the legacy of the first Point-Projection Microscope and its progenies: the Field Ion Microscope, the Topografiner and the Atom-Probe. The Atom- Probe Field Ion Microscope was introduced in 1967. For the first time a microscope became available that could determine the nature of one single atom seen on a metal surface and selected from neighboring atoms at the discretion of the observer. In 1973 the 10 cm Atom Probe was introduced. Patented in 1975 as the Field Desorption Spectrometer and dubbed the Imaging Atom- Probe, it allowed individual atoms to be identified and imaged as a function of depth from the surface; thereby becoming the first 3-D Atom Probe, Today, the Atom .Probe has emerged as an important tool in the arsenal of tools used to develop new materials for technology and industry. As Atom Probe technology advances new vistas of exploration will emerge, continuing the unique legacy of the Point-Projection Microscope.


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