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agencies, to allow transport operators to increase their loads (both dimen- sions and weight) on specified roads in exchange for monitored compliance. GNSS tracking and wireless commu-

nication technology is used to remotely monitor where, how and when heavy vehicles in the scheme are being operated. It includes intelligent speed compli-

ance, as well as monitoring location and time of day in relation to the agreed con- ditions for each specific operation. On- board mass monitoring systems, using load cells or air suspension systems are also used where there are infrastructure risks, such as a bridges or pavements with load restrictions. This provides productivity and effi-

ciency gains for transport operators, reduces the number of trucks on the road and effectively outsources enforce- ment with the inbuilt incentive for oper- ators to comply.

PASSENGER TRANSPORT Public transport is a key mode for mov- ing people in all major Australian cities. This is in the face of the challenge that 80 per cent or more mode share is by car across all capital cities, and this results low fare-box recovery (less than 30 per cent) for public transport. Integrated electronic fare collection

systems have been progressively intro- duced in major urban areas to reduce cost and improve boarding times, hence reliability and reduce travel times. The fare collection systems have been pro- gressively introduced with Smartrider

 Australia’s national key freight routes

“Public transport is a key mode for moving people in all major Australian cities. This is in the face of the challenge that 80 per cent or more mode share is by car”

(Perth 2007), GoCard (Brisbane 2008), Myki (Melbourne 2010), Metrocard (Adelaide 2012) and Opal (Sydney 2014). Travel planning and real-time infor-

mation websites and apps on smart- phones have rapidly spread across major Australian cities, initially produced by the state transit agencies and major

operators. For example, Sydney now has numerous publicly available public transport apps that have been fostered by Transport for NSW and reduces the need for printed timetables.

 Technology which increases reliability and reduces cost helps increase in the use of public transport and with it, revenue


SUMMARY Connecting Australia presents major transport challenges in terms of a coun- try typified by enormous distances, low population density, and yet highly urbanised in a few major cities. These challenges have been addressed by transport professionals through the innovative use of technology, adapting best practice from around the world to produce cost-effective solutions. ●

 Phil Charles is Professor of Transport at the University of Queensland

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