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32 CHAPTER 2


Cancun, favors substantial reforms of developed country agricultural sub- sidies and protection. Other alliances, such as the G10 and the G33, have made separate proposals (Hanrahan and Schnepf 2005). Djibouti, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia belong to the African group and the G90. Egypt and Morocco have submitted their own proposals arguing for the substantial and rapid dismantling of tariffs and the elimination of domestic support on the part of developed countries, more flexibility for developing countries that is consistent with their development needs, and an increased level of technical and financial assistance to net food-importing developing countries and LDCs (WTO 2001a, 2001b).


The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership


The EMP, or Barcelona Process, was signed on November 28, 1995, by the E.U. and 12 Mediterranean partner countries to create a framework for political, economic, cultural, and social ties among the partners.8 The main instruments of the EMP, European Union–Mediterranean Association Agreements (EMAAs), have replaced the cooperation agreements of the 1970s, which were char- acterized by nonreciprocal preferences accorded by the E.U. to developing countries (McQueen 2002).


EMAAs are based on reciprocal liberalization for industrial trade and eventual liberalization for agricultural and fisheries products. The measures to liberalize trade in manufactured products are well defined and adhere to fixed timetables. However, with regard to agriculture and services, the measures are less clear and involve no specific schedule (McQueen 2002). Under the EMAAs, at the end of a fixed schedule for phasing out the tariffs on manufactured products the E.U. will benefit from duty-free access to its partners’ markets. By contrast, the E.U. has not offered significant new concessions to Mediterranean partner countries in terms of market access for their agricultural exports (Garcia-Alvarez-Coque 2002). The agreements largely eliminated the tariffs on industrial goods exported from MENA to the E.U., but the benefits were expected to be modest because the E.U. industrial tariffs were already low and because the manufactur- ing sector in the MENA countries faced difficulties competing in European markets. Furthermore, the agreements opened MENA markets to imports of manufactured goods from the E.U. This may have had negative effects on the Mediterranean countries’ terms of trade and on employment in local


8 The E.U. Member States (then 15, today 27) and Mediterranean countries (12 then, 10 after Cyprus and Malta joined the E.U.) agreed on the Barcelona Declaration, which laid the founda- tions of a new regional relationship. See <http://www.euromedinfo.eu/site.151.content.en .html>. This section is based on Beuchelt (2005), unless otherwise indicated.


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