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INDEX 223


policies of, 22, 143–47; trading partners of, 137; unemployment in, 9; wheat market liberalization effects in, 153–58, 156t, 157t, 158t, 159–60, 192; WTO status of, 29t, 149


Taiwan, tariff rates of, 44 Tariff rates: bound, xvii–xviii, 28, 107; for cotton, 46; for dairy products, 46; of Egypt, 71, 71t, 72; of Middle East and North African countries, 24t, 25, 33; of Morocco, 165, 170, 173; most favored nation, 31; reductions in, 22, 28, 165; for rice, 44; for sugar, 44, 45; of Syria, 143–44; of Tunisia, 100, 106–8, 107t, 108t, 109t; for wheat, 43; in WTO, xvii–xviii, 28, 72, 107, 170 Taxation, 22, 105


Terms of trade effects, xix, 41, 50, 185, 187–88 Textile industries: in Egypt, 14, 69; inter- national competition, 14; Multi-Fiber Arrangement, 14, 101; of Syria, 137; of Tunisia, 101. See also Cotton Thomas, M., 33, 34 Tokarick, S., 54–55 Trade. See Agricultural exports; Agricultural imports; Agricultural trade Trade agreements. See Bilateral trade agree- ments; Free trade agreements; Multilateral agreements; Regional trade agreements Trade barriers: customs procedures, xxii, 58, 109, 146, 147, 194; in Middle East and North Africa region, 8; sanitary and phytosanitary regulations, 29, 109, 193. See also Nontariff barriers; Tariffs Trade creation, 59 Trade diversion, 56, 59


Trade facilitation, xxiv, 33, 58, 178–79, 178t, 179t, 198


Trade liberalization: adjustment assistance and, 125, 197; agricultural price increases caused by, xviii–xix, xxi–xxii, 47–49, 52, 53, 61, 184; in agriculture, xxiii, 1–4, 31; benefits of, 1, 41, 53; complementary policies and, xxiv–xxv, 64, 160, 197–204; distributional impact of, 62, 64–65, 173–74, 186; domestic liberalization and, 41, 53, 55, 66, 185; dynamic gains from, 174; effects in MENA countries, 49–51, 50t, 53–56, 66; efficiency gains from, xix, xxi, 41, 185, 188; macroeconomic effects of, 56–58, 66, 117, 118t, 155, 156t, 185; mercantilist perspective on, 41, 191; in services, 37, 177–78, 178t, 179t; terms of trade effects of, xix, 41, 50, 185, 187–88; transition costs of, 193; varied effects of, 2, 31. See also Free trade agreements; Global trade liberalization; Multilateral


agreements; Unilateral trade liberalization; World Trade Organization


Trade liberalization, effects on poverty, xix–xxii; alternative scenarios, 116–23, 154, 176–78; ambiguity of, 192; in Egypt, xix–xx, 83–94, 93t, 95, 186–87; estimation methods, 96–99, 116, 125–34, 154–55, 160–64, 174–76; global liberalization, 53, 55–56, 122–23, 177; in Morocco, xxi, 172–79, 176t, 179t, 180, 190–91; scholarship on, 51–65; in Syria, xx, 153–58, 158t, 159–60, 189–90; trade policy implications of, xxi–xxiv, 191–97; in Tunisia, xx, 115–23, 120t, 124–25, 187–89; variations in, xxi–xxii, 192


Trade policies: of Egypt, xviii, 70–71, 94, 95, 197; implications for, xxi–xxiv, 191–97; of Morocco, 22, 23, 25–27, 165, 178; of Syria, 143–47; of Tunisia, 22, 23, 25–27, 100, 106–10. See also Agricultural trade policies


Transaction costs, 198 Transition costs, 193 Transportation, xxii, 58, 194 Trimborn, T., 62–63, 65


Tunisia: agricultural exports of, xx, 14, 14t, 16t, 101, 104, 110–12; agricultural imports of, 13, 15t, 101–3, 107, 108–9, 110, 111; agricultural policies of, 103–6; agricultural production in, 100–101, 102t, 103t, 112; economic growth in, 7–8, 100; effects of agricultural price increases, 50t; effects of trade liberalization, 54, 59, 60, 61–62; food processing in, 100–101, 102t; household expenditure surveys in, 116, 127–28; household head occupations in, 128, 129t; income inequality in, 114; incomes in, 100, 127–28; investment climate of, 100; irrigation in, 104; labor markets in, 65; livestock in, 101; olive oil exports of, 13, 14, 101, 111, 123; poverty in, 113–15, 115t; poverty reduction in, 113–14, 114t; price controls in, 104–5; subsidies in, 104, 105–6, 106t, 203; tariff rates of, 25, 43, 100, 106–8, 107t, 108t, 109t; taxation in, 105; textile industry of, 101; trade agreements of, 36–37, 40, 72, 111–13, 149, 169; trade liberalization effects on poverty in, xx, 115–23, 120t, 124–25, 187–89; trade policies of, xviii, 22, 23, 25–27, 100, 106–10; trading partners of, 18, 101, 110–12; unemployment in, 9; urbanization in, 100; wages in, 125; WTO membership of, 29t, 32, 109, 110 Turkey: Agricultural Reform Implementation Program, 201–2; benefits of trade liberalization, 61–62; free trade agreements of, 73, 113, 169


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