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Trends in X-ray Casting Defect Recognition


Advancements in assisted defect recognition can improve X-ray inspection in metalcasting facilities for consistent results and shorter inspection times.


JASON ROBBINS, YXLON, HUDSON, OHIO A


utomatic or assisted defect recognition (ADR) in X-ray appli- cations has been uti-


lized for decades in the metalcasting industries. Due to advancements of X-ray tubes, detectors and better software with improved algorithms, it is becoming increasingly important in production processes. Te first production-approved, inline ADR systems for automotive castings were installed over 20 years ago, and this technology continues to be used. In many cases, this automa- tion means there are no operators interpreting the images. Tese systems typically make an “accept” or “reject” decision based on the parameters supplied by a quality engineer and are designed to enable repeatable, reliable and documented results independent of human inspection error. Te acceptance and implementa-


tion of digital radiography (DR) in virtually every market has opened the door for many of the software tools, image processing and automa-


tion solutions made possible with digital imaging technology. Casting defects previously difficult to see are now easier to identify, and with the appropriate software tools, systems can help inspectors find, characterize and disposition anomalies and automati- cally accept or reject the casting based on the system settings (Fig. 1). Te terms automatic and assisted in


ADR have different meanings. Auto- matic means no operator is required— inspection is fully automatic with fully automatic decision-making without operator intervention. Assisted means


the system processes the images and indicates potential defects to the operator, who then uses this informa- tion to make the final decision. Te system is taught or can infer what a defect is, and the software analyzes the X-ray image and makes a decision or recommendation using characterizations, measurements, or other factors. Te goal is to provide more


consistent and reliable evaluations by removing human variability and reduce casting inspection time by replacing manual inspections with


Fig. 1. A defect is difficult to see in the normal view (left), but is clearly detected in the processed image (right).


May 2016 MODERN CASTING | 57


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