This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
As with any cooperative learning

group, students need structure to complete the task: defined roles for each group mem- ber; a musical goal or problem to be solved; a time limit; sound sources or instruments to be used; and clearly stated expectations for the musical product.

5. Composition as a tool for expressing emotion

Students immediately take ownership of their compositional task when they are asked to represent emotions. Students enjoy sharing feelings through poetry and visual art; composition can be another mode of personal expression. Using musical con- cepts that students have already learned, ask them to introduce expressive elements such as tempo, tempo changes, dynamics, and phrasing. Play recordings that can be perceived to express a certain emotion. For example, ask students to record an emotion with descriptive words. Then with specified sound source (e.g., found sounds, barred instruments, rhythm instruments), students can identify sounds that represent the de- scriptive words. These sounds can then be structured and formed into a composition.

6. Composition as a representation of a picture, story, or poem

Mussorgsky’s “Pictures at an Exhibi-

tion” or Saint-Saens’”Carnival of the Ani- mals” are famous examples of compositions promoted by pictures, stories, or poems. Music teachers can come closer to, reach- ing the goal of MENC Standard 8: “Un- derstanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts” by using famous works from visual arts and literature as prompts for writing music. Many important works of art are available in general music texts, and most school li- braries have access to an abundance of these materials through online databases. The use of pictures, stories, or poems as prompts for music composition is usually associated with Orff teaching, but can also be found in Kodaly, Dalcroze, and other music educa- tion approaches. There are countless ways that students can use materials from other artistic disci- plines to create. For example, when a cer- tain picture or word appears in a storybook, students might choose an unpitched percus-


Bachelor of Arts in Music Bachelor of Arts in Music with a Double Major

Bachelor of Music Education Bachelor of Music in Performance

For Open House and Audition dates, go to:

sion sound to identify it.The sounds could then be organized into a musical form, eval- uated, and performed.

7. Composition to explore elements such as rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, or expressive elements

Composition allows students to cre-

atively explore the wide range of possibili- ties within a single area of music. For the purpose of exploring rhythm, for example, a composition might include combinations of quarter and eighth notes. These two sim- ple rhythms can become interesting when combined with expressive elements like dy- namics, phrasing, and tempo changes. Sim- ple melodies and harmonies can be added. The addition of movement to the rhythm composition would add even more interest. The possibilities are endless.

8. Composition to explore musical forms

As a student progresses through general music, musical forms move from simple to complex. The first musical structures that are

explored are same/different 53 phrases, echo, and call/response. Question/answer,

song forms cumulative songs, a and b com- binations (e.g., aba, aaba, aabb, etc.) coda, repetition, and blues forms are just a few structures to explore through composition. Composing in different forms gives a stu- dent a direct experience with musical struc- tures that analysis alone does not provide.

9. Composition to teach cross curricular themes

Music teachers are increasingly asked to

reinforce other subject areas. Only a portion of music teachers teach music alone; most music teachers work as part of a team with teachers of other subjects. Music composi- tion is especially useful in getting students to organize thoughts into a new framework, which makes it an ideal tool for cross cur- ricular learning. For example, a class might create a melody based on the symbols of the state of Georgia: setting each syllable of the symbols to pitches (e.g., Che-ro-kee rose, peach, brown thrash-er); combining the beats into a four beat motive; varying the motive to make a b motive; and finally combining the motives to form an aaba structure. In another example, students who


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92