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that teacher modeling or demonstration was their preferred method. The second highest rated strategy was the use of speech or vo- cal techniques, followed by verbal descrip- tions of internal physiology, which was rated third. The fourth highest rating was given to the use of imagery or creative visualization, after which the percentages of respondents rating strategies as effective dropped con- siderably for the remainder of the strategies. When asked later in the survey to rate strate- gies for specific internal techniques, the top four strategies remained consistent with mi- nor changes in order regarding the use of the strategy for techniques such as tonguing. In this area, speech syllables were rated higher, which is understandable because the tongue is used to articulate usually based on a speech syllable. The lowest number of flutists rated “other strategy not listed or practice device” as being effective. While this was expected because newer strategies and devices were not mentioned in traditional literature and would have had less exposure, I wanted to gain more information about current prac- tice, which led to part two of the study. The second part of this study was an

investigation of newer strategies that were nominated by survey participants. Flutists were asked to name other strategies or devic- es that they found to be effective for internal techniques. They were also asked to suggest players who use the strategies to be later inter- viewed and observed using the strategy. This part of the study investigated newer strate- gies that have been in use over the last few decades. The strategies that were nominated and investigated were: the Pneumo-Pro© device, the breath-builder machine, buzzing the lips, finger breaths, the breathing bag, Al- exander Technique, spectral analysis and the use of the newer mp3 and mp4 video and recording capabilities in teaching, as well as slow-down software and web streaming of performances and lessons. Participants in the survey also mentioned alternatives to some of these newer techniques. These low-cost options were pinwheels, papers strips, plastic bags and straws. Interviews and observation with nine flutists who were either nominated by others or who volunteered themselves led to some interesting discoveries. The participants in part two of the

study were: Rachel Brown (Royal Conser- vatory); Paula Gudmundson (doctoral stu- dent at University of Minnesota); Catherine


LeGrand (Campbell University); Hillary Jones (Masters student at New York Univer- sity); Keith Underwood (Mannes School of Music; NYU and Aaron Copeland School of Music); Immanuel Davis (University of Minnesota); Tina Christie (Piedmont Sym- phony Orchestra); Katherine Saenger (Col- legium Westchester); and Patricia George (Sewanee Music Festival). Several of the par- ticipants had studied with Keith Underwood or Immanuel Davis. Underwood and Davis had previously played for brass players who had introduced them to aspects of Arnold Jacobs’ teaching (former tuba player with the Chicago Symphony). Jacobs was known for helping brass players who had developed problems in their playing, by using various devices and breathing strategies. Davis and Underwood were also introduced to using the lip buzzing practice technique by trum- peter Jerome Cal- let. All the flutists who volunteered to participate in this study and who used breathing bags, finger breaths, the breath builder ma- chine and buzzing had studied with ei- ther Underwood or Davis. The common ge- nealogy of these strategies became clear and so I dubbed this the “Brass-Derived” strat- egy category. The flutists who used Spectral Analysis shared a commonality in both being employed in the sciences, one in computers and the other in sound wave technology. The Pneumo-Pro© seemed to have few users be- cause of the recent invention of the device. I had to contact the inventor, Kathy Blocki in order to find teachers who use the device. I did find that the use of mp3 and mp4 re- cording, web streaming and slow-down soft- ware in teaching was almost common, as was the use of the Alexander Technique. I examined the newer strategies and devices to see if they fit into the modeling categories I had created

for traditional

strategies and found that several did fit. Spectral Analysis is a way of creating a visual representation of sound, including volume, pitch and duration. Students are then able to compare their spectograms with those of their teachers or other professionals. Mp4 recordings gave students unlimited access to excellent aural and visual performance


models, and slow-down software enabled them to listen to the performance models slowly and at correct pitch in order to analyze vibrato or tonguing. I found that the practice devices and several practice techniques necessitated creating a new teaching category. I called these strategies kinesthetic models because the devices, the buzzing technique and finger breaths were ways to practice a feeling related to blowing or tonguing. The feeling memory of using the device or technique was then transferred to playing the instrument. An example is the breath- builder machine, in which a ping-pong ball is elevated both by blowing and inhaling with sufficient speed and continuity of air to keep the ball from dropping. Tonguing is also practiced on the machine while keeping the ball elevated and stationary. The player is instructed to replicate the feeling they gained

from using the machine on their instrument. Buzzing was explained to be a method limiting the amount of air used while creating a forward tongue position. When the instrument is played after practicing the buzzing technique, the mouth position and use of air is supposed to be maintained even though the lips do not buzz while playing the flute. Some players who were interviewed were not in favor of using the techniques and devices that came from the brass world on the flute. These players used other methods to illustrate limiting the air, such as blowing through small straws. The Pneumo-Pro© was used to practice continual breath movement and direction, while other flutists used toy pinwheels for the same purpose. I realized that the category of kinesthetic models included one traditional method: Suzuki tonguing, so called because it came from Suzuki flute pedagogy. This technique uses rice or objects that the player spits out to illustrate tonguing technique. The intention is for the feeling of all kinesthetic methods to be transferred to playing the actual instrument.

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