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While broadly diversified, many of emerging technologies represent or use smart systems, a fusion of sensors, computing and communication, thus representing a significant opportunity for MEMS sensors.

Emergence of Abundance In 2013, a vision of Abundance has emerged ( This visions forecasts that all major global problems, such as hunger, lack of medical care, lack of clean water and lack of energy, can be solved in one generation (20 to 30 years) through:

• Exponential technologies, producing goods and services faster than demand growth.

• DIY (Do-it-Yourself ) revolution, which deployed global scale project (e.g. flying to space) by individuals.

• Technophilanthropic force unrivaled in history, providing significant funding for addressing global problems, such as malaria.

• The rising billion of poorest people on earth being plugged into economy, enabling growth of global GDP.

Eight technologies are classified as exponential and include: • Biotechnology and bioinformatics • Computational systems • Networks and sensors • Artificial intelligence • Robotics • Digital manufacturing and infinite computing • Medicine • Nanomaterials and nanotechnology.

Sensors are not only one of the eight exponential technologies, but are also embedded in other exponential technologies. Abundance projects the need for 45 trillion networked sensors in about 20 years, helping to solve global problems for all people on earth.

Global Tides Driving Demand for Sensors Several (somewhat overlapping) global economic tides (defined as global market pull) which drive the demand for sensor-based applications (smart systems) have emerged. The most visible tides support Abundance objectives and include:

Internet of Things (IoT)2 and Everything (IoE)3 IoT is defined as sensors and actuators embedded in physical objects, often using Internet Protocol4 . IoT is starting to gain a major momentum resulting from:

• Introduction of IPv6 Internet addressing, increasing the number of IP addresses from 3x109 to 3x1038, effectively enabling addressing every object in the world.

• Recent modifications of Internet architecture by major network providers Cisco, IBM, Amazon and GE to include two layers below Cloud: Fog and Swarm, significantly simplifying deployment of IoE.

• 2020 forecast for IoE growth released by major companies, Cisco’s at $19 trillion (over 20% of global GDP) and GE’s at 15.5 trillion, with sensors expected to represent about $1 trillion.

• Recent acquisition of Nest by Google for $3.2B, one of the first IoT startups.

Major IoT sensor applications are expected to be focused on information and analysis (such as tracking behaviour of people, things and data through space and time, enhanced real time situational awareness of physical environment and sensor driven decision analytics through deep analysis and data visualisation) and automation and control.

Libelium5 and Beecham Research6 forecasts IoT deployment to create smart cities, environment, water, materials, energy, agriculture, farming, buildings, retail, transportation, public safety, industrial controls, ehealth and IT.

In the current China’s 12th five year plan, IoT was promoted to one of the seven Strategic Emerging Industries with about $1B government funding allocated during the next five years7.

CeNSE Hewlett Packard, in multiple presentations from 2010 to 20128 , introduced a Central Nervous System for the Earth (CeNSE). CeNSE is based on detectors and actuators, forecasted to reach trillion units by 2018. Key market segments include climate monitoring, oil exploration and production, assets and supply chain tracking, smart highway infrastructure, tsunami and earthquake warning, smart grid and homes and structural health monitoring.

The first deployed CeNSE system included 1 million wireless accelerometers on 10 x10 km site for Shell oil exploration.

Context-Aware Computing Intel presented9 the emergence of sensors for Context-Aware Computing. Sensors supporting such systems are expected by Intel to absorb a trillion sensors by 2020-2022. Out of trillion sensors, 70% will be solving problems and 30% will be enhancing lifestyles.

The applications will include sensing all around you and your needs, understanding situations (e.g. mood of the person you meet), all around devices, personal health, social interactions, planet context and universe context.

Emergence of location based advertising, and forthcoming location and activity-based advertising will be based on sensors in the body, on the body and out of the body. These systems need personal behaviour information derived from sensors.

>> Continued on page 44

43 | commercial micro manufacturing international Vol 7 No.2

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