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The first rotor CSEM developed was not simulated; it was designed just using a pure analytical model of the electromagnetic field. This meant that the size of the magnets had to be adjusted using this analytical model. But in order to synthesise these cylindrical magnets, the team had to make several assumptions, which relied on intuition.


Now, with COMSOL, what’s powerful is that we take the insight derived from a good initial guess of the analytical model and then run the software to finely tune the design to meet some optimisation criteria. We are, however, considering some special designs where the magnets have geometries and very particular magnetisation patterns, for which the development of an analytical model would be extremely difficult.


Instead, with software we now can evaluate multiple designs where we vary the reaction sphere’s mass, torque and magnetic fields, and we can also investigate unusual geometries for the magnets or create the magnetic field from the coils in different ways. Thanks to COMSOL we can take an intuitive idea, build the geometry, run the simulation and within several hours can evaluate whether a given design should be further investigated. In summary, there are certain designs we are currently evaluating that we would have not been able to test using analytical approaches — but with COMSOL it takes just a few hours.


We conduct our studies in two steps. First we determine if the magnetic field from the permanent magnets on the sphere provides the required flux fields (figure 3). In a second step we then simulate the coils being energised and


>> Continued on page 32


Sensofar S neox for research and industry


 Confocal, Interferometer and Focus Variation modes in the same instrument


 Superposed high resolution color and height images


 Roughness according ISO 25178  Vertical resolution down to 0.01 nm  Long working distance objectives


We also supply


AFMs for research, industry and teaching Nano-/Micro- Indenter and Tribology Tester, Nanoparticle size measurement, LEED/AES, Stylus Profiler


New: Confocal Interferometric AND


Focus Variation


Contact your nearest office Germany


France South +


<< Figure 3: Radial magnetic flux density at the rotor surface (surface plot) and magnetic flux density (arrow plot). >>


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www.schaefer-tec.com 31 | commercial micro manufacturing international Vol 7 No.2


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