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137. Luo N, Johnson JA, Shaw JW et al. Self-reported health status of the general adult U.S. population as assessed by the EQ-5D and Health Utilities Index. Med Care 2005; 43: 1078-86.


138. Gibson PR, Weston AR, Shann A et al. Relationship between disease severity, quality of life and health-care resource use in a cross-section of Australian patients with Crohn’s disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 22: 1306-12.


139. Buxton MJ, Lacey LA, Feagan BG et al. Mapping from disease-specific measures to utility: an analysis of the relationships between the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire and Crohn’s Disease Activity Index in Crohn’s Disease and measures of utility. Value in Health 2007; 10: 214-20.


140. Feagan B, Schreiber S, Brown M et al. Utility scores of patients with active Crohn’s disease: changes following induction and maintenance regimen with certolizumab pegol 400 mg (Precise 2). Gut 2007; 56 (Suppl III): A162.


141. Kappelman MD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Porter CQ et al. Direct health care costs of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis in US children and adults. Gastroenterol 2008; 135: 1907-13.


142. Hay JW, Hay AR. Inflammatory bowel disease: costs of illness. J Clin Gastroenterol 1992; 14: 309-17.


144. Prenzier A, Bokemeyer B, von der Schulenburg JM. Health care costs and their predictors of inflammatory bowel disease in Germany. Eur J Heatlh Econ 2011; 12: 273-83.


143. Feagan BG, Vreeland MG, Larson LR et al. Annual cost of care for Crohn’s disease: a payor perspective. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 1955-60.


145. Crohn’s and Colitis Australia. The economic costs of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. June, 2007. www.crohnsandcolitis.com.au.


146. Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada. www.mssociety.ca. Accessed June 20, 2012. 147. Parkinson Society of Canada. www.parkinsons.ca Accessed June 20, 2012. 148. Epilepsy Canada. www.epilepsy.ca. Accessed June 20, 2012. 149. Public Health Agency of Canada. Diabetes in Canada: Facts and Figures from a public health perspective 2011. www.phac-aspc.gc.ca. Accessed June 20, 2012.


150. The Arthritis Society. www.arthritis.ca. Accessed June 20, 2012. 151. Schizophrenia Society of Canada. www.schizophrenia.ca. Accessed June 20, 2012. 152. The Rare Disease Act of 2002 defined these as affecting less than 0.07% of the U.S. population. Drugs to treat rare diseases, when not commercially attractive in the U.S., are called “orphan drugs.”


154. Heikenen JB, Werlin SL, Brown CW, Balint JP (1999) “Presenting symptoms and diagnostic lag in children with inflammatory bowel disease.” Inflamm Bowel Dis 5(3): 158-60.


153. Spray C, Debelle GD, Murphy MS (2001) “Current diagnosis, management and morbidity in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease.” Acta Paediatr 90(4): 400-5.


155. Rath HC, Andus T, Caesar I, Scholmerich J. Klinik und Poliklinik fur Innere Medizin I (1998) “Initial symptoms, extra-intestinal manifestations and course of pregnancy in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases” Med Klin (Munich) 93(7):395-400. [Article in German].


156. Pimentel M, Chang M, Chow EJ, Tabibzadeh S, Kirit-Kiriak V, Targan SR, Lin HC (2000) “Identification of a prodromal period in Crohn’s disease but not ulcerative colitis”. Am J Gastroenterol 95(12): 3458-62.


157. Grandbastien B, Gower-Rousseau C, Merle V, Dupas JL, Yzet T, Lerebours E, Marti R, Laine I, Cortot A, Salomez JL (1999) “Diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease” Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 47(1):45-53. [Article in French.]


158. Leddin, D., Canadian Association of Gastroenterology: “Survey of Access to Gastroenterology” (SAGE) completed April, 2012.


159. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) & Wait Time Alliance (WTA): “Shedding Light on the Total Wait for Care: Report on Wait Times in Canada, June 2012”. www.cag-acg.org/press-media/news-release-june-19-2012.


THE IMPACT OF INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE IN CANADA 94


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