Biodiversity in forests and oil palm plantations, South East Asia
Number of selected species recorded 120
Birds - Thailand 100
Forest Oil palm
80 Birds - Indonesia 60
Biodiversity is the basis for any development; it is the natural capital, the stock of natural ecosystems, which provide services for any human activity. As pointed out above, the main immediate threat to biodiversity from biofuel production is through changes in land use, but longer-term threats may come from the spread of invasive species and uncontrolled use of genetically modified (GM) organisms.
The environmental and social costs of losing ecosystem services can be substantial, with an
economic cost of billions of dollars, though often times the price of goods and services in the local and global economy often fails to reflect this cost. Land conversion, which leads to increased carbon emissions, further exacerbates the risk of losing ecosystem services, climate change being likely to lead to further changes in ecosystem services.
Biodiversity is the basis for any development...
Medium and large mammals - Indonesia
Source: Danielsen, et al., Biofuel Plantation on Forest Land, Double Jeopardy for Biodiversity and Climate, 2008.
Figure 3.2.1 Biodiversity in forests and oil palm plantations, South East Asia