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Savings in greenhouse gas emissions by fuel type1 0


Tonnes of CO2 equivalent per hectare and year FT-diesel


Eucalyptus, electricity co-generation Miscanthus, electricity co-generation Switchgrass, electricity co-generation Ethanol+ Eucalyptus, electricity co-generation Miscanthus, electricity co-generation Switchgrass, electricity co-generation FAME2


Jatropha, electricity from residues, glycerine co-produced


Soybeans, soybean meal and glycerine co-produced


Rapeseed, rape meal and glycerine co-produced


Palm fruit, incl CH4 emissions from POME


Source: R. Hoefnagels et Al, Greenhouse gas footprints of different biofuel production systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2010. Figure 3.1.4 Savings in greenhouse gas emissions by fuel type 22 Wheat, heat from Natural gas boiler Maize (corn), heat from Natural gas CHP4 510 20


40


60 Ethanol


Coal to Liquid (no CCS3) Coal to Liquid (CCS) Tar sands diesel/gasoline US diesel/gasoline EU diesel gasoline


Sugarcane, excess bagasse for fuel (heat)


Sweet sorghum, heat from bagasse Sugarbeet, pulp to fodder Wheat, jeat from CHP4 straw Wheat, heat from lignite CHP4 Wheat, heat from Natural gas CHP4


020 51015


Notes: 1. Allocation of co-products by EU default (energy allocation for co-products, subtraction for co-generation of electricity and heat), energy, mass and market value 2. Fatty-acid methyl esters. 3. Carbon capture and storage. 4. Combined heat and power.


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