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Estimated feedstock efficiency and environmental impacts


Energy conversion efficiency


GHG emissions* (kilograms of CO2 per MJ)


1 tonne of oil equivalent


ETHANOL Corn


High 1 to 1.1 81 to 85 High High High


1 135 to 1 900


Water use


Fertilizer use


Pesticide use


Energy inputs


(litres per hectare) Fuel yield


High Sugarcane 8 to 10.2 4 to 12


High


Medium


Medium


5 300 to 6 500


• Using an agricultural-systems approach, which integrates both biomass production for various end-uses and conservation measures. For example, one approach could be IFES designed to integrate, intensify and thus increase the simultaneous production of food and energy. Conservation agriculture is an approach for ‘resource-saving agricultural crop production that strives to achieve acceptable profits together with high and sustained production levels while concurrently conserving the environment’ (IFAD).


• Encouraging efficiency improvements in agricultural production to maximise output per unit of input.


BIODIESEL Soybean


High 1.9 to 6 49


Medium


Medium- Low


Medium- Low


225 to 350


High Oil palm 9 51


Medium


Low


Low 4 760


Source: M. Groom et al., Biofuels and Biodiversity: Principles for Creating Better Policies for Biofuel Production, Conservation Biology, 2008; CIA, The World Factbook, 2010. Note : *Greenhouse gas emissions over biofuel life cycle (gasoline = 94 kgCO2/MJ fuels; diesel =83 kgCO2/MJ fuels).


Figure 3.1.12 Estimated feedstock effi ciency and environmental impacts 29


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