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3.1


As impacts can be significant, they need to be assessed from a number of angles, including:


• Direct and indirect land-use changes, with potential impacts on GHG emissions and biodiversity (Figure 3.3);


• Food security, water quality and availability.


Although some biofuels may be considered energy- efficient in their production and use, they can still be detrimental to biodiversity, water quality or social development. In some instances, the complete opposite may be true – an energy-inefficient biofuel might have substantially less social and environmental impacts. Consequently, all factors and trade-offs need to be assessed when developing safeguards.


Figure 3.3 Biofuels crops and biodiversity


Energy efficiency of fuels - how many kilometres can we drive ? Thousand kilometres per hectare


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Note:


Soybean - Brazil


Soybean - USA 18


Cassava - Brazil Cassava -


Nigeria


Rapeseed - RME Corn - China


Corn - USA Sugar cane - Brazil Sugarcane - India Figure 3.4 Energy effi ciency of fuels – how many kilometres can we drive?


Oil palm - Malaysia Lignocellulose - FT


Oil palm - Indonesia


Lignocellulose - Methanol


First generation biofuels Advanced biofuels


1. The figures for ‘Advanced biofuels’ are based on conservative distances with an internal combustion engine, and assume long-term cultivation. 2. Distances are calculated for a car with average consumption.


Lignocellulose - Ethanol


Sources: Hill, J., et al., The Environmental, economic and Energetic Costs and Benefits of Biodiesel and Ethanol Biofuels, PNAS, 2006; Hamelinck, C.N. ,Faaij A.P.C, Outlook for advanced biofuels, 2005.


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