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CO emissions from land conversion for energy crops Tonnes of CO2 per hectare


2


Peatland tropical rainforest


South East Asia - Oil palm


Lowland tropical rainforest


Peatland natural rainforest


Natural rainforest


Logged-over forest


Degraded land


Rubber plantation


-90 697 1 797 Brazil - Sugarcane Land conversion and greenhouse gas emissions


The conversion of high carbon-storage ecosystems, such as tropical forest, savannah and peatland into biofuel plants, can neutralise any GHG emission reductions achieved by replacing


fossil fuels with biofuels, and even lead to a net increase in CO2 emissions.


Biofuels, in the use phase, emit the carbon that has been previously absorbed during plant growth. Inputs during cultivation and conversion need to be accounted for. However, the bulk of GHG emissions are related to land-use change. The carbon footprint varies considerably depending on the type of land converted, the type and yield of the feedstock (tonnes per hectare), as Figure 3.1.4 shows. It is therefore key that any GHG analysis takes into account the entire life-cycle of biofuels, including impacts from land-use change. As illustrated, these CO2


emissions range across different types of land and crops (Figure 3.1.5). Figure 3.1.5 CO2 emissions from land conversion for energy crops 23


Logged-over woodland (Bioshape)


-13


Tanzania - Jatropha Miombo


woodland (wet) (Bioshape)


154


Woody cerrado and cerrado


165


Degraded pasture


-58 Cropland (soy) -12 581 85 854 735


Tropical moist forest


1 580 748 433


87


Brazil - Soybean


Tropical rainforest


Amazonian rainforest


Grassy cerrado


Grassland


23


woodland (dry) (Bioshape) Cropland


75 -140


Source: R.Hoefnagels et al.: Greenhouse gas footprints of different biofuel production systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 2010.


Miombo


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