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MOTION CONTROL FEATURE


Industrial control is a highly developed


Motion control: an evolving solution for advancing technologies


A


ll technologies develop over time, with most eventually reaching a point where they are as advanced as they can be. This is clearly


evident in older technologies where the peak has been reached, with an example being steam trains which, over about 100 years, developed from Stephenson’s Rocket to the Flying Scotsman. Other technologies such as cars, for instance, continue to develop at a


rapid pace. There is no denying that a 10 year old car is not as sophisticated as one fresh off the production line, but it can be argued that the developments are actually advances in constituent technologies rather than fundamental car design – for example, is an engine management system an advance in automotive engineering or electronics applied to automotive applications? Is satnav automotive engineering or digital technology? Cars are currently offering us another important insight to the advancement of technologies – the role of disruptive change, with the manufacturers responding to socio-political pressures and developing electric propulsion. Electric and hybrid cars are now available from most automotive majors and are moving into the mainstream markets. So is this development pattern being reflected in the world of industrial control? There have certainly been advances since the 1960s days of hand-assembled relay boards and the pneumatic (non-sparking) control of early North Sea oil rigs. Furthermore, it is not surprising that specialist forms of control, such as SCADA, motion control and dual redundancy safety, have developed.


DRIVING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS There are two main things that drive the advancement of technology. The first is the makers of the technology pushing the performance envelope of their products; the second is user demand. Then we have to allow for the occasional step change caused by a


disruptive event, and control technologists are experiencing one right now: Industry 4.0. The term Industry 4.0 was coined to describe the merger of two separate


things in the worlds of manufacturing and production: the field-level device control of automation and the transfer of the resultant data to higher-level control systems for both production and enterprise management. First used at the 2011 Hanover Fair, it embraces cyber-physical systems, the Internet of Things, cloud computing, cognitive computing and ‘smart factories’. It is fair to say that Industry 4.0 is a group of related technologies that are brought together to improve productivity by bringing as much information as possible to the control of machines and processes. Motion control is now offering an illustration of how this evolving. Over the


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field that advances year on year as the underlying technology does too. But will it, and all its specialist sub-sets, continue to


thrive? Gerard Bush, a motion specialist with INMOCO, offers his opinion on the topic


last few years the developers of motion technologies have improved the data communications and processing capacity of their control units. Naturally, once the controllers had more capacity, users started to set up systems with more information flowing through them. The result is that the host machines have become more responsive to their operating environment and production requirements and thus more productive. As an example, a production machine may be in communication with a system that is measuring user demand in real time (or near-real time) and thus able to automatically react to market changes. Alternatively, a machine may be equipped for continuous self-diagnostics, allowing the motion controller to slow down operations and summon maintenance help if a warming bearing is suggesting a possible pending breakdown. Another example is in the growing popularity of AGVs (automated guided


vehicles) in warehouses and factories. These are effectively mobile robots that can travel from workstation to workstation to deliver workpieces, or from storage bin to storage bin to picks parts for an order. The motion control system that drives these units is reacting to live information it is receiving from a central computer – a case of Industry 4.0 in action. Another way in which motion control is improving is in the precision of its


operations. The resolution of positional accuracy has improved steadily over the years and is now at a point where, for instance, precision assembly of small parts is commonplace. With increasing accuracy we see even more innovative applications emerging along with a widening of the areas of use. So, today we see motion control solutions being used for micro-machining, in operating theatres to perform surgeries with supreme accuracy, and to collect individual cells in biological laboratories. These examples are very exciting, but it is notable that they are each based on the creative use of one or more relatively simple technological developments. Over time these developments will be applied to more and more projects. As an illustration of a simple but important development, Kollmorgen’s


single cable connections for motion systems building makes the physical assembly of systems easier and faster. This takes out cost, improves maintainability and – importantly – encourages widening use of motion control. Similarly, PMD Corp is working on pre-engineered subsystems that can be easily integrated to make large sophisticated systems. So over the next several years it looks


like motion control will be moving into new fields and be more widely used, and that industrial control in general will continue to develop, becoming more and more capable, easier to use and more widely spread.


INMOCO www.inmoco.co.uk


DESIGN SOLUTIONS | MAY 2019 25


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