A great number of samples are being contami- nated with mul- tiple mycotoxins as compound feed contains a mixture of sev- eral raw materi- als.

This type of toxin shows severe effects in vivo that are of big concern for poultry. It can cause symptoms like heart dam- age, muscular weakness, respiratory distress, decreased feed intake and impaired immune function. Moreover, moniliform- in showed toxicity towards different cell lines in vitro. Analysis of the 2018 samples showed that on average, 34 mycotoxins and metabolites were present per sample. 98% of the sam- ples contained ten or more mycotoxins and metabolites. The type of raw materials were emerging mycotoxins are most commonly found include: Wheat (Aurofusarin: 96%, Monili- formin: 92% and Enniatin: 92%), Maize (Moniliformin: 97%, Culmorin: 87% and Beauvericin: 81%) and finished feed (Moniliformin: 96%, Culmorin: 92% and Beauvericin: 84%). “The emerging mycotoxins is a hot topic in mycotoxin re- search at the moment. We need to get more insights on the impact of these substances on animal health, especially the synergistic effect with the commonly found and well known mycotoxins. These data underscore the importance of moni- toring mycotoxin contamination, as mycotoxin occurrence varies in different regions,” Mr Marchioro explained.

Risk levels and regional examples Biomin also uses risk levels for the different regions and for different animal species (poultry, pigs and cattle). The risk lev- el expresses the percentage of samples testing positive for at least one mycotoxin above the threshold level in parts per billion (ppb). These levels range from low (> 12.5% contami- nated samples), moderate (12.5-25%), high (25-50%), severe (50-75%) and extreme (>75%). The recommended risk threshold of major mycotoxins in ppb are: 2ppb for Aflatox- ins, 50ppb for ZEN, 150ppb for DON, 50ppb for T-2, 500ppb

24 ▶ ALL ABOUT FEED | Volume 27, No. 3, 2019

for FUM and 10ppb for OTA. Below the main findings per region and the associated risk levels

Europe The data for Europe show that 74% of the corn samples con- tained FUM, followed by DON. In the finished feed samples, the mycotoxins mostly found were FUM, ZEN and DON. In Eu- ropean cereal samples (wheat, barley, oats, rice, sorghum, millet), DON was mostly found (59% of samples was contami- nated). These contamination levels mean that the risk levels for most of the mycotoxins for poultry, pigs and cattle is high to severe. In Europe, the highest risk level for a region was found in Northern Europe (total risk of 56% – severe).

South and Central America In the region South and Central America the corn samples were heavily contaminated with FUM (86% if the samples), followed by DON. Also cereal samples were contaminated to a great extent. The survey showed that DON was found in 88% in the cereal samples, with an average contamination of 1,949 ppb. In Argentina, the average concentration of FUM rose from 2,800 ppb in 2017 to 4,762 ppb in 2018. In the sec- ond semester of 2018, South America had to increase the risk level from severe to extreme.

North America In North America, the data show a DON prevalence of 86% in cereals, with an average contamination of 1,853 ppb. This also means a severe risk for all animal species. However, risk also seemed to lighten from 2017 to 2018. In the corn sam- ples, FUM was most detected (in 70% of the samples). In the

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