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Artemia: A Model Specimen Acknowledgements The Author thanks the Immunocons Company,


Germany, for Figure 3e , and Timm Piper for all photomi- crographs presented which were made by Timm from May to June 2007.


References [1] TJ Abatzopoulos et al ., Artemia, basic and applied biology , Springer , Dordrecht, T e Netherlands , 2002 .


Figure 9 : Digital inversion of an underexposed bright-fi eld image with fl ash, original photomicrograph (left), “digital phase contrast” (right), day 8. Specimen and equipment same as Figure 8 .


[2] J Dhont and P Lavens , “ Tank production and use of ongrown Artemia ” in Manual of the production of live food for aquaculture , FAO Fishers Technical Paper 361 , eds. P Lavens and P Sorgeloos, Rome , 1996 .


[3] EE Ruppert et al ., Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach , 7th Edition , Brooks Cole, Pacifi c Grove , CA , 2003 .


[4] J Piper , Microscopy Today 21 ( 1 ) ( 2013 ) 10 – 16 . [5] J Piper , Microscopy and Analysis 106 ( 2007 ) 5 – 8 . [6] J Dhont et al ., “ Preparation and use of Artemia as food for shrimp and prawn larvae ” in CRC Handbook of Mariculture , 2nd Ed . Vol. 1 : Crustacean Culture , ed. JV McVey, CRC Press, Inc ., Boca Raton, FL , 1993 , 61 – 93 .


[7] JO Evjemo and Y Olsen , J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 242 ( 2 ) ( 1999 ) 273 – 96 .


Figure 10 : Infl uence of feeding protocols on the growth kinetics of Artemia (modifi ed from [ 6 ]).


Websites [a] General information: Encyclopedia of life (EOL), “ Artemia salina , Brine Shrimp.” http://eol.org/pages/1020243/details (accessed April 24, 2018).


[b] C Drewes, “ Artemia franciscana (2002).” Zoology & Genetics Dept. Iowa State University. https://www.eeob. iastate.edu/faculty/DrewesC/htdocs/ARTEMIA.PDF (accessed April 24, 2018).


[c] Functional anatomy: RS Fox, “Invertebrate Anatomy Online, Artemia franciscana , Brine Shrimp (2006).” Lander University, Greenwood, SC, 2006. http://lanwebs. lander.edu/faculty/rsfox/invertebrates/artemia.html (accessed April 24, 2018).


[d] Nikon Instruments, “Shade-Off and Halo Phase Contrast Artifacts,” online tutorial. https://www.microscopyu.com/ tutorials/shade-off -and-halo-phase-contrast-artifacts (accessed April 24, 2018).


Figure 11 : Infl uence of population density on the growth kinetics of Artemia (modifi ed from [ 7 ]).


growth, diff erentiation, maturation, and locomotion. Because of their size these organisms can be examined with simple low-cost microscopes equipped with a simple digital camera or a smartphone adapted to the microscope. For high-quality photomicrographs a fl ash is needed. Video clips can be made, using the video modes implemented in many cameras, to provide documentation of various locomotion characteristics. Further experiments for advanced students can be designed that lead to insights about the principles of scientifi c investiga- tions in general.


2018 July • www.microscopy-today.com


[e] Pedagocial considerations focused on very young children: Brine Shrimp Direct Inc., “Brine shrimp in the classroom.” http://www.brineshrimpdirect.com/c175/c76/brine-shrimp- classroom-c176.html (accessed April 24, 2018).


[ f ] Suggestions of experimental protocols for advanced users: NLY Sheng, “T e eff ect of temperature on the hatching success of brine shrimps, practical script,” (2011). http:// brainstormthoughts147.blogspot.de/2011/03/practical- 52-eff ect-of-temperature-on.html (accessed April 24, 2018).


[g] Young nauplii of Artemia : “Artemia salina,” (2007) video clip. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPURd2qfwEI (accessed April 24, 2018).


[h] Mature Artemia : “Sea Monkeys,” (2008) video clip. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Bx_ JimGwM4&spfreload=10 (accessed April 24, 2018).


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