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“The City of Kaohsiung has positioned


sustainability as ‘one of the core policy objectives’ for the overall city development”


Kaohsiung


“The Edina City Council has created an Energy and Environment


Commission, significantly expanding Edina’s commitment to com- prehensively address environmental and energy issues.”


Edina


Burlington’s emissions reduction plans were “created through a cross-sectoral, multi- jurisdictional process involving government officials, community stakeholder group leaders and experts.”


Burlington


Voluntary Cities


In addition to the 42 C40 cities that have responded to the CDP Cities 2011 questionnaire, a further 6 non-C40 cities have voluntarily reported to the CDP. Throughout this chapter we refer to these cities as “voluntary” cities. Voluntary cities are Kaohsiung and Taipei (East Asia), Burlington, Edina and Las Vegas (North America) and Dublin (Europe). Some of these cities, like Burlington, Edina, and Las Vegas, participated in the CDP Cities Pilot program in 2009. The other cities are new to CDP this year. City sizes vary strongly, from 47,000 inhabitants (Edina) to 2.6 million inhabitants (Taipei). However, by reporting voluntarily to CDP, these cities have all demonstrated a strong commitment to transparency and climate action.


Climate change is high on the radar of voluntary cities In 4 cities, overall responsibility for climate change lies at the mayoral (or equivalent) level. Where climate change is not overseen by the mayor, strong governance structures are in place. In Burlington, for example, responsibility for climate change sits not with the mayor but rather with a Climate Action Planning team. In addition, most voluntary cities have articulated energy & climate programs and have incorporated GHG reduction emissions targets into urban master planning.


Voluntary cities show strong leadership on city government emissions All cities report GHG emissions for local government operations. On average, these cities report more recent emissions data than the C40 average, with the majority choosing either 2007 or 2009 as their accounting year. It is encouraging to


see strong evidence that cities beyond the C40 are demonstrating leadership and commitment to measurement and disclosure.


Measurement methodology varies between cities. 3 reporting cities utilize the ICLEI protocol, while the other cities use either an IPCC- derived methodology or a proprietary approach. Voluntary cities all include buildings in their analyses of their own emissions, and a majority of cities include emissions from the municipal fleet, street lighting, and traffic lighting. 2 cities report Scope 3 emissions. They both calculate their emissions from employee commuting. Only 1 city has its city government operations emissions data externally verified.


Voluntary city governments have set targets for reduction of emissions


5 voluntary cities are committing themselves to GHG reduction targets for city government operation emissions. Interestingly, voluntary cities differ from C40 cities in two ways. Firstly, voluntary cities on average set shorter targets: 4 cities have set targets that are designed to be met within 15 years. Secondly, when annualized, targets of the voluntary cities fall below the C40 average. Targets of voluntary cities equate to less than 1.7 percent per year, as opposed to an average of 2.3 percent per year for C40 cities.


Like C40 cities, voluntary cities apply a wide range of measures in order to achieve targets. These cities particularly focus on retrofitting of buildings and the upgrading of street lighting. The most popular ways to reduce emissions from transport are by encouraging employees to change


32 © 2011 Carbon Disclosure Project


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