Continued from page 32 The figures of CO2eq. emissions for primary production
of one ton of selected primary metal or material represented in Table 3 result in a more CO2eq.
ratio for 2018/2019 of 1.39:1 to 1.86:1.
The type of ores and processes involved explain the ranges in equivalent CO2
emissions (CO2eq. ). The
largest emitters of CO2 with more than one gigatons of CO2eq.
are cement, steel, plastics and aluminium
followed by titanium and chromium with around 300 megatons CO2eq.
*from concentrates, „open pit“ mining; + Plastic= thermoplastics, polyurethanes, duro¬plas-tics, elastomeres, adhesives, coatings/paints and sealants as well as fibers in polypropylene.
Table 3: Average CO2eq. emissions from the primary production of one ton of selected primary metal or material
Irrespective of the expectations of the industrial sectors of steel and aluminium to reduce in the long run specific CO2
emissions, actions to improve life
cycles and longevity will reduce the raw material consumption, waste streams and contribute to the reduction of CO2
emissions. CO2 emissions from the extraction of metals/
materials We live in a world where there will always be machinery with moving elements, composed of materials which need to be lubricated for low friction and longevity. The global material consumption of 92.1 gigatons (= billion metric tons) in 2017 (+ 8.6 gigatons of cycled products) is projected to rise until 2060 to 167 gigatons (UN Environment)  or 190 gigatons (O.E.C.D.) .
This forecast inevitably increases the consumption of metals and minerals used in engineering, if sufficiently
available, as well as generating associated CO2eq. emissions.
Table 3 compiles the global consumption of important specialty metals, major engineering metals and non-metallic engineering materials times their range in CO2
equivalent emissions (CO2eq.
metal or material. These data were sourced from industry associations or from literature [2,10].
The overall ratio between CO2eq. and extracted metals
is 1.38:1. This ratio is calculated for 2015 from the GHG emissions of 11.5 gigatons of CO2eq.
in the UN Emissions Gap Report 2019 divided by the material footprint of 8.3 gigatons of metal ores for 2015 as reported in UN Environment [12,17]. For 2017, the UN Resources Outlook 2019  reported an extraction of 9.1 gigatons of metal ores whereas the Circularity Report 2020 [13, p.18] stated 10.1 gigatons.
34 LUBE MAGAZINE NO.163 JUNE 2021
In the past, lubricants played a beneficial role in respect to friction, wear and scuffing protection. In the future, their role will be more valuable in order to reduce friction (energy efficiency) and extend longevity of equipment and consumer goods (materials efficiency, resource conservation) resulting in a significant reduction in CO2
References  M. Woydt et al. Interdisciplinary technology for the reduction of CO2-emissions and the conservation of resources, September 2019; https://www.gft-ev.de/en/tribology-study/
 M. Woydt et al. , Wear protection and sustainability as cross-sectional challenges, January 2021, https://www.gft-ev.de/en/
) per ton of primary
 H. P. Jost, Lubrication (Tribology). Education and Research Report. London: Dept. Education and Science, Her Majesty’s Stationary Office; February 1966
 O. Pinkus and D.F. Wilcock, Strategy for Energy Conservation through Tribology, 1977, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY 10016-5990, USA; www.asme.org
 P.M. Lee and R. Carpick (eds.), Advanced Research Projects Agency, 14th February 2017, U.S. DoE,
~carpickg/ dynamic/wordpress/wp-content/ uploads/2012/03/TribologyARPAE_FINAL.pdf Continued on page 36
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